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Updated 11 November 2004

Consequences Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter 1996








Figure 5 Estimate of surface temperature for the last 800,000 years, inferred from measurements of the ratio of 16O to 18O in fossil plankton that settled to the sea floor. The use of oxygen isotope ratios is based on the assumption that changes in global temperature approximately track changes in the global ice volume. Detailed studies for the last glacial maximum provide the temperature scale. Shown are changes in temperature in°C from the modern value. Based on data from J. Imbrie, J. D. Hays, D.G. Martinson, A. McIntyre, A. C. Mix, J. J. Morley, N. G. Pisias, W. L. Prell, and N. J. Shackleton, in A. Berger, J. Imbrie, J. Hays, G. Kukla, and B. Saltzman, eds., Milankovitch and Climate, Dordrecht, Reidel, pp 269-305, 1984.

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