Peru: Emissions Inventory for Energy and Nonenergy Sectors

Jorge Ponce Urquiza

Cesar Pizarro Castro

Juan Avila Lopez

Ivan Llamas Montoya

Elizabeth Culqui Diaz

Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria (UNI)), (Facultad de Ingenieria Ambiental) and Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN), Servicio Nacional de Meteorologia e Hidrologia (SENAMHI)

SUMMARY: To carry out the greenhouse gas emissions inventory in Peru, the emission system was divided into two major sectors: Energy and Nonenergy. The basic IPCC methodology was used in preparing the inventory. Due to the lack of national emission factors, this generally included the use of the IPCC emission factors (default values). Some local emission factors were available and used in the Nonenergy Sector. Emissions in the Energy Sector were as follows: CO2, from all sources totalled 35,174 Gg (16,246 Gg from biomass) using the IPCC "top-down" approach; CH4, from biomass, coal production, and oil and gas systems totalled 69.59 Gg; NOx from biomass totalled 622.71 Gg; CO from biomass totalled 0.464 Gg; and N2O from biomass totalled 10.94 Gg. Emissions in the Nonenergy Sector were as follows: CO2, 58,313 Gg; CH4 1,204 Gg; N2O, 6.19 Gg; NOx, 121.53 Gg; and CO 10,849 Gg.

INTRODUCTION

The quantification of Peru's Greenhouse Gas National Inventory is a complex task carried out by professionals and students of several institutions and universities in the country. To carry the work out in a systematic and methodological manner, work groups were formed with the participation of professional national staff and researchers of the National University of Engineering (UNI), the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN), and the National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI).

METHODOLOGY

The National Greenhouse Inventory was carried out in accordance with the methodology developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The guidelines and software (MINERG) provided by these institutions facilitated the planning and implementation of the National Inventory of Greenhouse Gases for l990.

RESULTS‹ ENERGY SECTOR

Using the methodology mentioned above, Peru's inventory for the energy sector is summarized in Tables 1‹ 7.

Results for emissions of CO2 from energy sources for specific fuels using the IPCC (top-down) methodology are given in Table 1.

For comparative purposes and to lay the groundwork for future identification of mitigation policies, energy consumption and emissions were also estimated by sector. The results of the CO2 emissions from energy sources for specific fuels using this "bottom-up" approach are given in Table 2.

DISCUSSION

Energy Sector

In order to obtain information on fuel consumption in each economic sector, it was necessary to recalculate the National Energy Balance for 1990, using information from qualified institutions and organizations, and consolidating these data in a main information source called Actualized Energy Balance‹ 1990. Using the Actualized Energy Balance, there is a 2 percent of difference between the calculations of CO2 from energy sources obtained in the "top-down" and "bottom-up" approach. This difference is due to "adjustments" (statistical tools used to make compatible the data corresponding to different information sources such as the National Council of Energy of the Ministry of Energy and Mines and the enterprise Petroleos del Peru S.A.).

CO2 emissions from fossil fuels were estimated to be 19,300 Gg. However, if we consider the CO2 generation by biomass consumption in the residential and commercial sectors, the emissions will be increased by 14,919 Gg. The contribution of other GHG's were moderate (See Table 3‹ 6).

Non-Energy Sector

Information in this sector was gathered from government agencies such as the Ministry of Agriculture, Universities, the Statistical National Institute (INEI), the Agrarian Research Institute (INIAA), and others. Research articles, theses, and the bibliography of special publications (FAO, IVITA) were also reviewed. 98.1 percent of CO2 emissions are from activities associated with land-use change and forestry, especially forest clearing. N2O is generated in minor amounts (6.19 Gg). 51 percent of this comes from fertilizer use, the burning of agricultural crop wastes, and savanna burning. The other 49 percent is generated from the burning of cleared forests .

NOx emissions (121.53 Gg) result from activities associated with agriculture, livestock, and land-use change. 41.2 percent of total NOx emissions come from the burning of agricultural crop waste and savanna burning; the other 58.8 percent is generated from the burning of cleared forests. The main source of CO emissions is forest clearing (59.2 percent), followed by the burning of agricultural wastes and savannas (40.5 percent), then industrial processes, with 0.2 percent of CO emissions resulting from lead manufacturing. Table 7 shows GHG emissions for the nonenergy sector.

CONCLUSIONS

The main greenhouse gases from energy activities in the country are CO2 (19,300 Gg), followed by CO (622.712 Gg) and CH4 (82.96 Gg), with minor emissions of nitrogen oxides. The transportation sector is the economic sector with the highest contribution of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, with gasoline as the major source of CO2. Other important sectors are residential, commercial, mining, metallurgy, fishing, public services, agriculture, and livestock. Energy conversion processes, particularly generating plants, also emit considerable quantities of CO2. The industry sector has smaller emissions.

The main greenhouse gases from nonenergy activities in the country are CO2 (58,313.94 Gg), followed by CO (10,850.32 Gg), CH4 (1,204.91 Gg), NOx (121.53 Gg), and N2O (6.19 Gg). The source that generates highest CO2 emissions is land-use change due to the burning of cleared forest and the conversion of pastures to agriculture fields. On the other hand, the abandonment of cultivated lands and managed forests reabsorb CO2 emissions and reduce the total CO2 in the atmosphere.

Agriculture and livestock activities are the main sources of methane emissions with 56.5 percent of the total emissions. The main activities that contribute to high methane emissions are breeding of animals, savanna burning, and rice cultivation.

REFERENCES

National Council of Energy (CONERG), Ministry of Energy and Mines, Lima 1990. Energy Balance 1990.

IPCC Draft Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, December 1993. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Workbook, Vol. 2.

Ministry of Transport, Communications, Housing and Construction, Lima, December 1993. [The most important statistic series of transport and communications 1985‹ 1992]

Petroleos del Peru S.A., Public Relations Department, Annual Memory 1990.

Petroleos del Peru, Estatistics of the Exploration/Production Operations, 1990.

National Enterprise of Electricity ELECTROPERU S.A. Production and Energy Power Balance 1990.

Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica, Anuario Estadistico 1990.

Ministerio de Agricultura. Boletin de la Producció n Pecuaria (1985‹ 1992).

Ministerio de Agricultura. Compendio Estadistico (1950‹ 1991). DANCE C.J. 1992. Potencial Forestal de la Amazona Peruana: con Especial Referencia a la Selva Alta. UNALM.

FAO 1990. Forest Resources Assessment Tropical Countries. Forestry paper #112, 86pp. Rodriguez, L. 1986. La Agricultura Migratoria y Problemas de la Conservació n, Politicas y Acciones 1986 a 1990 a cargo de la direccion general de flora y fauna de las regiones agraria. Lima-Peru, 149p.

Malleux, J., 1975 Mapa Forestal del Peru. Memoria Explicativa. Lima-Peru. UNA . Departamento de Manejo Forestal.

Brown, S. and Lugo, E. 1984. Biomass of Tropical Forests: A New Estimate Based on Forest Volumes.

Fearnside, P. 1987. Biomass of Brazil's Amazon forest. An Improved Estimate for Assessing the Green House Impact of Deforestation.

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INTERIM REPORT ON CLIMATE CHANGE COUNTRY STUDIES
March 1995

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