PROGRAM TITLE:	Ocean Ecological Dynamics, Marine Light 
				Mixed Layer 
ACTIVITY STREAM: 	Process Studies, Observe/Data
SCIENCE ELEMENT:	Ecological Systems and Dynamics

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH (ONR)

SCIENTIFIC MERIT:  A goal of this basic research program is 
to develop a reliable, robust in-situ observing system 
to quantitatively measure the space/time variability of 
optical, biological, and physical processes at high latitude ocean sites. 
 Field programs are defined to place fully instrumented deep 
water surface moorings with full suites of oceanographic 
and meteorological sensors in dynamic areas of the ocean.  State of 
the art systems capitalizing on the cutting edge ocean 
engineering techniques and unique ocean optical sensors will be part 
of this mooring.  This system is designed to operate in extreme sea 
and weather conditions, storing and reporting data via ARGOS.  
Results from a pilot mooring south of Iceland placed in FY 89 have 
been applied to a follow on mooring system installed in FY 91.  
Data from that mooring was used to support high priority Global 
Change research issues (such as the dynamics of the onset of the 
Spring phytoplankton bloom) and continues to be a significant 
contributor to the Joint Global Ocean Flux Studies (JGOFS) initiative. 
 Increased knowledge of the origin and propagation of blue-green 
light in the ocean will strongly contribute to the DOD 
Satellite Laser Communication and Non-acoustic ASW programs.  
Successful workshops to frame this work generated well defined 
science plans and subsequent significant additions to the science 
literature in this unique area.  This work was conducted primarily in 
the academic community with close liaison with Navy and other 
federal partners.

STAKEHOLDERS:  This research program is closely coordinated 
with research sponsored by NSF, NOAA, and NASA in support of 
Global Change programs (JGOFS, GLOBEC).

POLICY RELEVANCE:  This program deals with the potential role 
of phytoplankton in regulating the Earth's carbon 
dioxide concentration, a crucial factor in Global Change relating 
to greenhouse warming.  Currently each year, we dump 
approximately 6 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere 
by burning fossil fuels.  The ocean's annual production of 
phytoplankton is estimated at between 44 and 208 billion tons of 
carbon, equivalent to between 161 and 762 billion tons of carbon 
dioxide.  Thus, if we could increase the amount of phytoplankton in 
the ocean by somewhere between 1 to 4% we could flush out of the 
atmosphere the carbon dioxide we now dump into it.

PROGRAM CONTACT:  Dr. Edward J. Green, ONR Code 323C, 800 N. 
Quincy Street, Arlington, VA 22217-5660, (703) 696-4591.