PROGRAM TITLE:	Ocean Research
ACTIVITY STREAM:	Observations, Processes, Modeling
SCIENCE ELEMENT:	Climate and Hydrological System, Biogeochemical 
Dynamics

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

DESCRIPTION:  Ocean research was initiated by DOE in 1989 with the 
objectives to: 1) improve the treatment of heat and CO2 transport in ocean 
models; 2) produce a global description of the carbonate system for the 
calibration and verification of ocean carbon cycle models; and 3) develop 
advanced instrumentation for monitoring the ocean's physical and chemical 
state.  The program uses laboratory and field measurements, advanced 
models, new instrumentation and remote sensing techniques to provide 
needed scientific information.  The scientific basis for the program evolved 
with advice from the NAS Ocean Studies Board, and the advocacy of the 
CEES and NSF.  The rationale for many program elements is given in the 
science and implementation plans for the WOCE and JGOFS programs.

Global CO2 Survey includes the measurement of CO2 parameters during the 
WOCE Hydrographic Program expeditions to the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian 
Oceans. The CO2 data are obtained simultaneously with hydrographic 
sections so that global transport of CO2 can be estimated in evaluating 
alternative fossil-fuel management and land-use strategies.

Ocean Process Studies use state-of-the-art, numerical models to develop more 
efficient and physically realistic parameterizations of key processes such as 
dense-water production and surface-layer mixing in coupled atmosphere-
ocean models for climate prediction.  In addition to modeling, laboratory and 
field experiments are being conducted to define gas exchange velocities for 
CO2 and other radiatively active trace gases and to develop algorithms for 
making global estimates of CO2 uptake by remote sensing techniques.

Development of Instrumentation seeks to attain sufficient accuracy in oceanic 
CO2 measurements to detect the anthropogenic CO2 perturbation directly.  
Working with the NRL, DOE researchers are developing microwave 
radiometers to monitor global air-sea CO2 exchange from space.  DOE is also 
developing inexpensive, micro-power chemical sensors to provide sea truth 
for satellite observations.

STAKEHOLDERS: The CO2 data set will be invaluable for U.S. and 
international carbon-cycle modeling efforts to define global sources and sinks 
of anthropogenic CO2.  DOE's CO2 measurement techniques are used by 
international programs (SCOR, CCCO, and IGBP) to monitor trends of oceanic 
CO2 and for collaborative studies with NOAA, NSF, and foreign nations to 
develop systems to meet new accuracy standards.  The program maintains 
close coordination with global change research conducted by other agencies 
(NOAA, ONR, NASA, and NSF) such as the World Ocean Circulation 
Experiment (WOCE) and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS).

SHORT-TERM POLICY PAYOFFS:  The data from this program will reduce 
large uncertainties about the relative strength of terrestrial and oceanic CO2 
sources and sinks and increase confidence in policy options for resource 
management designed to control and mitigate CO2 emissions.  Ocean models 
are the only available way to estimate the present and future oceanic CO2 
uptake as part of atmospheric CO2 projections.  The process studies are 
helping policy makers understand the effects of the ocean on the rate of 
climate change.

PROGRAM CONTACT:  Michael R. Riches, DOE, ER-74, Washington, DC 
20585, 301-903-3264