PROGRAM TITLE:	Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Campaigns 
in support of Process Studies
ACTIVITY STREAM:	Process
SCIENCE ELEMENT:	Climate/Hydrologic System

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

DESCRIPTION:  UAVs have several advantages as platforms for climate 
process research among which are long endurance on station, very high 
altitude operation, measurements across vast geographic expanses, and 
responsiveness to real-time redirection.  These unique capabilities are 
realized with the added advantage of no risk to pilot/crew.  UAV technology 
has advanced to the stage where vehicles capable of some measure of the 
above advantages are available for commercial lease.  The DoD Strategic 
Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) has funded an 
effort at DOE to develop instruments for UAV or satellite platforms.  Under 
this program measurement campaigns will be undertaken to fly UAVs 
instrumented under the SERDP effort to collect data on the cloud/radiance 
problem.  The first campaigns will be flown in support of the objectives of the 
DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and utilize the 
extensive ground based instrumentation available in the ARM Cloud and 
Radiation Testbed (CART) sites to provide surface based measurements 
needed for more complete data on the effect of clouds on radiation 
transmission and absorption.  The combination of ground-based and UAV 
based instrumentation will begin the necessary collection of data to resolve 
the long-standing difficulty of modeling cloud-radiation effects in
General Circulation Models (GCMs).  The USGCRP has set radiation balance 
problem as one of its most important problems in climate research and this 
program will make a strong contribution to the resolution of that issue.  In 
addition these campaigns will provide proof that UAV technology is 
sufficiently mature to begin to fulfill its promise as a platform for global 
climate change and other environmental research.  The data will be exploited 
by a science team made up from government laboratory and academic 
researchers as a result of a competitive process.  Advice on this program has 
been obtained through several JASON reviews and guidance continues to be 
provided through the advice of a Technical Oversight Group (TOG) made up 
of researchers from NOAA, NASA, NSF and academic researchers.

STAKEHOLDERS:  Present plans include participation by NASA in 
instrumentation, data analysis and mission guidance.  DOE is participating in 
this program with DoD (Naval Research Laboratory) through the SERDP 
process.  (NRL is undertaking a measurement program aimed at stratospheric 
phenomena in global environmental change.) The effort is primarily in 
support of the DOE ARM program.  The potential for utilizing this capability 
for other global change research is very high - the instrument set as well as 
the proven platforms will be of high value to the community.

SHORT-TERM POLICY PAYOFFS:  Improved values for utilization in GCMs 
for cloud-radiation studies should be available as a result  of the first 
campaigns (2 years).  These should result in improved predictions from the 
GCMs on climate predictions and the influence of ongoing human activities.

PROGRAM CONTACT:  Patrick A. Crowley, DOE, ER-74, Washington, DC 
20585, 301-903-3069