PROGRAM TITLE:	Chesapeake Bay Global Change Research
ACTIVITY STREAM:	Process Studies
SCIENCE ELEMENTS:	Ecological Systems and Dynamics
				Biogeochemcial Dynamics
				Climatic and Hydrologic Systems

 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
SMITHSONIAN ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH CENTER (SERC)

SCIENTIFIC MERIT:  The SERC Rhode River site is an ideal location for long-
term interdisciplinary studies of the impact of global change on the 
environment.  This facility has been selected through national peer 
competition as one of a network of 25 sites best suited for global change 
ecological research in the United States.  These are research centers in the 
United States with site characteristics, facilities, staff, and long-term research 
results which make them ideal for ecological aspects of global change 
research.  The objectives of this program focus on long-term monitoring of 
biological populations and their controls; the effects of land use on hydrology, 
nutrient dynamics, and biotic populations; the direct effects of increasing 
atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on plant communities and the 
atmosphere; UVB monitoring both in the Chesapeake region and globally; 
data management and ecological modeling at various hierarchical levels 
from populations through landscapes.

Long-term measurements at permanent stations and comparative regional 
studies are used to detect change and extrapolate local site data to the regional 
level.  Up to 20 years of continuous monitoring data are now available on a 
wide range of biological and physical/chemical parameters.  Experimental 
approaches are often used to test for effects of projected change.  For example, 
chambers are enriched with carbon dioxide continuously to examine direct 
physiological and ecological effects.  New technology is tested and adapted to 
ecological research needs.  For example, a tuneable infrared diode laser is 
being used to continuously measure turbulent exchange rates between 
mature hardwood forest canopies ad the atmosphere.  The ARC INFO GIS is 
used to create landscape level data bases for regional models for land 
use/nutrient dynamics and various simulation models are used to synthesize 
data on individual ecosystem behavior.  Where necessary new instruments 
are developed and calibrated by SERC.  For example, UVB spectral 
radiometers designed for continuous, high precision monitoring of spectral 
data under ambient conditions.  A new in situ ozone monitoring instrument 
is now under development for use in the forest exchange studies.

STAKEHOLDERS:  The program involves close cooperation with agencies 
such as NSF, DOE, NOAA, NCAR, Maryland Department of the 
Environment; universities such as Maryland, Johns Hopkins, William and 
Mary and George Mason; SI bureaus such as STRI, NMNG, NZP.  The 
program contributes broadly to USGCRP integrating themes such as global 
water and energy, global carbon cycle, and ecological systems and population 
dynamics.  It is closely tied to the goals of IGBP Core Programs such as LOICZ 
and GCTE.

POLICY RELEVANCE:  The studies conducted under this program are directly 
focussed on high-priority objectives of the USGCRP, including long-term 
documentation of the threatened estuarine and coastal ecosystems, long-term 
environmental monitoring and measurement of atmosphere-ecosystem 
relationships, and development of predictive models for atmosphere-
ecosystem interactions and land use effects on nutrients and hydrology.  They 
look at some of the most critical aspects of ecological systems and dynamics, of 
biogeochemical dynamics, and of solar influences (UVB irradiances).

PROGRAM CONTACTS:

SI SGCR Representative:	Ted A. Maxwell
		NASM MRC 315
		Smithsonian Institution
		Washington, D.C.  20560
		202 357 1424
		FAX:  202 786 2566
		Email: tmaxwell@ceps.nasm.edu
	
Bureau Representative:	David Correll
		Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
		Box 28
		Edgewater, MD  21037
		301 261 4190
		FAX: 301 261 7954