PROGRAM TITLE:	SI/MAN and the Biosphere Biological Diversity 
Program
ACTIVITY STREAM:	Assessment
SCIENCE ELEMENT:	Ecological Systems and Dynamics

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE

SCIENTIFIC MERIT:  In 1986, the Smithsonian Institution in conjunction 
with UNESCO Man and the Biosphere created a special program to monitor 
and conserve biological diversity in tropical and temperate areas.  Called 
SI/MAB, the program has two primary components -- long-term monitoring 
at permanent research sites and training courses, led by professionals, that 
extend beyond the classroom to give participants practical experience in the 
field.  Important to the success of the program is our concentration on host-
country conservation priorities.  We locate projects where host-country 
resource managers have identified environmental problems and then work 
with those experts, other researchers and international organizations in 
designing and carrying out monitoring and training.  This cooperative 
approach helps ensure that the projects will be continued by host countries 
into the future.  After all, they have a significant stake in seeing that their 
reservoirs of biological diversity -- the "stuff of life" -- remain intact.  
SI/MAB integrates long-term research and education through international and 
national cooperation to help conserve global biological diversity.  Long-term 
monitoring is the most basic step in conserving biological diversity.

The objectives of this program are to:  (1) Determine the past, present and 
future viability of forest diversity within the conservation unit, (2) Detect 
and estimate anthropogenic changes in forest ecosystems and in species diversity,
 while providing guidelines to generate practical mitigation problems, (3) Gain 
an understanding of the catalysts of change, many of which are associated 
with economic development (logging, mining, mineral exploration and 
exploitation, zoning that attempts to accommodate growing human 
populations), and (4) Define the fundamental limits of change of tropical 
forest resources.  With developing country counterparts, we are continuing to 
develop International Biodiversity Monitoring in forest ecosystems through 
the world.  Professional biodiversity training and education is provided 
internationally to help establish and maintain the biodiversity monitoring in 
a network of protected areas throughout the world.

Increased funding in future years will allow the development of two 
important aspects of the program: (a) the training of human resources to 
accomplish long-term monitoring, and development of the educational 
packages and (b) the establishment of long-term monitoring research sites in a 
network of protected areas world wide.

STAKEHOLDERS:  The SI/MAB's measuring and monitoring program is 
operating in Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela, Guyana, Puerto Rico and St. 
John in the U.S., and training programs have been conducted in additional 
countries of Brazil, Guatemala, and Panama.  Several additional countries 
from Latin America and the Caribbean as well as Asia and Africa will join 
SI/MAB international effort in the next few years.  To date, over 35 national 
and international activities have collaborated with the SI/MAB program and 
this number continues to grow.

POLICY RELEVANCE:  The SI/MAB Program addresses the need to 
incorporate the social factor in measuring, monitoring and management 
biodiversity in the tropical rainforest, where it has operated for the last seven 
years.  The Program also addresses the ecosystem's natural and human 
induced changes, and contributes directly to the goals of International 
Cooperation, Education and Public Awareness, and Ecological Change and 
Biodiversity.


PROGRAM CONTACTS:

SI SGCR Representative:	Ted A. Maxwell
		NASM MRC 315
		Smithsonian Institution
		Washington, D.C.  20560
		202 357 1424
		FAX:  202 786 2566
		Email: tmaxwell@ceps.nasm.edu
	
Bureau Representative:	Francisco Dallmeier
		Office of International Activities
		MRC 705
		Smithsonian Institution
		Washington, D.C.  20560
		202 357 4792
		FAX:	202 786 2557