PROGRAM TITLE:  	Global Volcanism Program 
ACTIVITY STREAM:  	Observations
SCIENCE ELEMENT:   	Solid Earth Processes

 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY (NMNH)

SCIENTIFIC MERIT:  The historical record on a global scale is important not 
only for understanding events that are uncommon in our own lifetimes but 
also for developing the perspective needed to understand any volcanic event.  
Past volcanological studies have been conducted on a single volcano, process, 
or product.  This program compiles information on all the world's volcanoes 
in order to provide a space/time perspective for global volcanism.  
Complementing and strengthening the Smithsonian's curatorial research 
programs and specimen collections the program  provides important 
resources for the international research and hazard mitigation communities.

The three main parts of the program are:  (1) The Global Volcanism Network 
(formerly SEAN), a network tracking and reporting current volcanic activity 
around the world; (2) A database of the world's volcanoes and their known 
eruptions of the last 10,000 years; and (3) An archive of maps, photographs, 
and other historical documentation of the world's volcanoes. 

Our ever-growing database has been successfully transferred from an archaic 
mainframe system to an efficient desktop environment that gives us on-line 
answers to questions that would have formerly required weeks or months.   
GVN reports reach tens of thousands of readers each month--through 
"Geotimes", "EOS", and "Bulletin of Volcanology" as well as our own "GVN 
Bulletin"--and we have published a book, "Global Volcanism 1975-1985", 
compiling the first 10 years of reports.  Our archives now contain >3000 maps 
covering most of the world's volcanoes, as well as historic documents such as 
those discovered in our work on "Krakatau 1883".  These--plus a variety of 
photographs--form an interactive laserdisk display in the Smithsonian/USGS 
exhibit "Inside Active Volcanoes".  Other interactive GVP elements of this 
exhibit, now touring US museums, include an on-line version of our "GVN 
Bulletin", and a menu-driven version of our database allowing answers to a 
wide variety of volcano questions.   Another public education project has 
been the joint publication, with USGS, of "This Dynamic Planet", a 1x1.5 m 
world map showing volcanoes, earthquakes, physiography, and tectonic 
features of the Earth.

The main elements of this program have been in place for about 25 years.  
The Smithsonian's reporting network started at the end of 1967, as the Center 
for Short-lived Phenomena, and grew through SEAN to today's GVN.  The 
need for quick access to scattered volcano data led to the start of our database 
in 1971, and informal archiving of volcanological documents began around 
the same time.   For almost the same period of time, we have been 
contributing our own SEAN/GVN reports, providing the first global dataset 
for the full spectrum of volcanic activity--the small ones as well as the large 
ones--around the world.  Line item funding for this program, augmenting 
existing base programs and initiating a formal archive, arrived in FY 1985.

STAKEHOLDERS:  The Global Volcanism Network includes 550 foreign 
correspondents and its reports are read by a much larger number overseas.  
Many foreign volcanologists also participate in our database efforts.  
Interaction with NASA and NOAA is frequent, both in real-time volcanic 
cloud monitoring via satellite and LIDAR monitoring of long-term 
atmospheric effects.  Collaboration with DOI/USGS volcanologists includes 
joint projects (e.g. exhibit and world map) and reporting (via observatories 
and VCAT). 

POLICY RELEVANCE:  Development of this program comes at a time of 
greatly increased recognition of volcanism's impact on the atmosphere, 
hydrosphere, and even biosphere (from El Nino to mass extinctions).  
Understanding volcano-climate interaction requires knowledge of the 
frequency and magnitude of all eruptions -- large and small -- gained from the 
GVP database.  The range of behavior is large and the time scales are long, 
demanding careful attention to both the historic record and the global 
spectrum of activity in order to understand how volcanoes work.  
Furthermore, GVN reporting of new eruptions aids focusing of remote 
sensing devices in order to maximize data gathering on the effects of 
contemporary volcanism.

The program is relevant to several key areas identified as part of the USGCRP 
providing data on greenhouse gases, terrestrial sources/sinks, individual and 
regional volcanogenic SO2 emissions quantified and globally extrapolated, 
observing systems and information management, comprehensive databases 
for global volcanis activity established and integrated including SO2 and CO2 
emissions, models, comprehensive assessments of environmental gases, 
global water, energy cycles, and sea level change, atmospheric radiation, 
atmospheric radiation processes quantified.  

Short-term plans include external modem access to the database, an export 
version of the file, and a second edition of our book "Volcanoes of the 
World", as well as continued improvement in the database itself.  Expansion 
will include increased links to other related databases, such as Felix Chayes' 
(volcano rock chemistry), Chris Newhall's (eruption precursors), and Russell 
Blong's (hazards/fatalities).  Laser disk access to graphic elements from our 
archives (the exhibit disk being a prototype) will be a major growth area.  
Volcanism shows no sign of slowing down, so GVN reporting will continue, 
emphasizing better communication to facilitate both prompt study and 
interdisciplinary approaches to understanding volcanoes. Increased funding 
in out years will allow expansion of coverage, increased accuracy and swifter 
reporting.

PROGRAM CONTACTS:

SI SGCR Representative:	Ted A. Maxwell
		NASM MRC 315
		Smithsonian Institution
		Washington, D.C.  20560
		202 357 1424
		FAX:  202 786 2566
		Email: tmaxwell@ceps.nasm.edu
	
Bureau Representative:	Marsha Sitnik
		NMNH MRC 106
		Smithsonian Institution
		Washington, D.C.  20560
		202 357 2670
		FAX: 202 786 2934
		Email: nmhod004@sivm.si.edu