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Table 1.1. Radiation Amplification Factors (RAFs) at 30°N.



Effect
RAF
Reference
  January 
(290 DU)
July 
(305 DU)
 
Erythema* 1.6 1.5 Anders et al., 1995
Skin cancer in SKH-1 hairless mice (Utrecht) 1.5 1.4 de Gruijl et al., 1993
SKH-1 corrected for human skin transmission 1.2 1.1 de Gruijl and van der Leun, 1994
Elastosis 1.1 1.2 Kligman and Sayre, 1991
Photocarcinogenesis, skin edema 1.6 1.5 Cole et al., 1986
Photocarcinogenesis (based on STSL) 1.5 1.4 Kelfkens et al., 1990
Photocarcinogenesis (based on PTR) 1.6 1.5 Kelfkens et al., 1990
Melanogenesis 1.7 1.6 Parrish et al., 1982
Melanoma in fish 0.1 0.1 Setlow et al. 1993
DNA Related      
Generalized DNA damage* 2.2 2.1 Setlow, 1974
Mutagenicity and Fibroblast killing 2.2 [1.7] 2.0 [2.7] Zölzer and Kiefer, 1984; Peak et al., 1984
Fibroblast killing 0.3 0.6 Keyse et al., 1983
Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation 2.4 [2.0] 2.3 [2.1] Chan et al., 1986
(6-4) photoproduct formation 2.7 [2.3] 2.5 [2.3] Chan et al., 1986
HIV-1 activation 4.4 [0.1] 3.3 [0.1] Stein et al., 1989
Eyes      
Damage to cornea 1.2 1.1 Pitts et al., 1977
Damage to lens (cataract) 0.8 0.7 Pitts et al., 1977
Other effects on animal cells      
Occupational exposure limit 1.4 1.5 ACGIH, 1991
Immune suppression 1.0 [0.4] 0.8 [0.4] DeFabo and Noonan, 1983
Cell mortality in Chinese hamster 1.3 1.2 Banrud et al., 1993
Substrate binding in Chinese hamster 0.4 0.4 Banrud et al., 1993
Membrane Damage      
Membrane bound K+-stimulated ATPase inactiv. 2.1 [0.3] 1.6 [0.3] Imbrie and Murphy, 1982
Plants      
Isoflavonoid formation in bean 2.7 [0.1] 2.3 [0.1] Wellmann, 1985
Photosynthetic electron transport 0.2 0.1 Jones and Kok, 1966
Overall photosynthesis in leaf of Rumex patientia 0.2 0.3 Rundel, 1983
DNA damage in Alfalfa 0.5 0.6 Quaite et al., 1992
Phytoplankton      
Inhibition of motility (Euglena gracilis) 1.9 1.5 Häder and Worrest, 1991
Inhibition of photosynthesis (Phaeodactylum sp.) 0.2 0.3 Cullen et al., 1992
Inhibition of photosynthesis (Prorocentrum micans) 0.3 0.4 Cullen et al., 1992
Inhibition of photosynthesis, in Antarctic community 0.8 0.8 Boucher and Prezelin, 1996
Inhibition of photosynthesis (Nodularia spumigena, cyanobacterium) 0.2 0.2 Häder et al., 1994
Tropospheric photolysis      
O3 + h O(1D) + O2* 1.7 1.5 de More et al., 1997
O3 + h O(3P) + O2 0.1 0.1 de More et al., 1997
H2O2 + hn ® OH + OH 0.4 0.4 de More et al., 1997
HNO3 + h OH + NO2 1.1 1.0 de More et al., 1997
NO2 + h O(3P) + NO 0.0 0.0 de More et al., 1997
HCHO + hn ® H + CHO 0.5 0.5 de More et al., 1997
HCHO + hn ® H2 + CO 0.2 0.2 de More et al., 1997
Aqueous photochemistry      
CO production (Suwannee River) 0.3 0.3 Valentine and Zepp, 1993
CO production (Pacific Ocean)* 0.3 0.3 Zafirou, priv. comm., 1998
COS production (Gulf of Mexico) 0.2 0.2 Zepp and Andreae, 1994
COS production (North Sea) 0.6 0.6 Zepp and Andreae, 1994
Photodegradation of nitrate ions 1.1 1.0 Zepp et al., 1987
Photodegradation of HCHO (Biscayne Bay) 1.3 1.1 Kieber et al., 1990
Photoproduction of H2O2 in freshwater 0.1 0.1 Cooper et al., 1988
Materials damage      
Yellowness induction in polyvinyl chloride 0.2 0.2 Andrady et al., 1989
Yellowness induction in polycarbonate 0.4 0.4 Andrady et al., 1991
Other weighting functions      
Temple U. Robertson-Berger meter 0.8 0.7 Urbach et al., 1974
Solar Light Robertson-Berger meter (Model 501) 1.2 1.1 Manufacturer’s literature, 1994
Ozone cross section (273 K) 0.8 0.8 de More et al., 1997
UV-A (315-400 nm) 0.03 0.02  
UV-B (280-315 nm) 1.25 0.99  
UV-B’ (280-320 nm) 0.87 0.71  
Exponential decay, one decade per 14 nm 1.00 1.00  

Updated from UNEP (1994), with new entries denoted by (*). RAFs are computed on basis of daily integrals. Listed references are for the original action spectra used in the calculation of the RAFs. Measurements of action spectra often do not cover the full UV-A wavelength range. For such cases, the RAF calculations were repeated by extrapolating the action spectra to 400 nm; values shown in brackets show the RAF estimated from the extrapolated action spectra, for cases where the RAF changed by at least 0.2 units, and are indicative of the highly uncertain UV-A contribution.
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