NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

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The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

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This work was sponsored by the federal agencies participating in the interagency Committee of Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC): The Department of Housing and Urban Development, Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense, Department of Interior, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of State, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, Domestic Policy Council, Federal Emergency Management Administration, Tennessee Valley Authority, National Economic Council, Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, and Central Intelligence Agency. "This report is funded 'in part' under Contract No. 50-DKNA-5-00015 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its sub-agencies."

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