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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d89apr36

Kankyo Kenkyu, No. 69, July 1988.

"Protection of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer. Details of the Ozone Problem and Measures Taken to Solve It," H. Goto, 23-36. Japan has signed the Vienna Treaty for the protection of the ozone layer and the Montreal Protocol, and has decided to establish the ozone protection law.

"Future Technical Problems in the Measures to Counter Freon," K. Mori (Environ. Agency, Tokyo), 53-58. The concentration of Freon in the atmosphere is increasing again, due to increased use as a coolant in automobiles and as the blowing agent for urethane foam, and it will be continuously monitored in Japan. Discusses the development of alternatives to Freon, and emission controls.

"Ultraviolet Rays and Skin/Cutaneous Cancer," Y. Miki (Ehime Univ., Ehime, Japan), T. Miyauchi, 59-65. Presents the effect of UV rays on the individual components of skin. The U.S. EPA reports that the development of the sunburn of skin, the fundus cellular cancer and the flat epithelial cancer increases by about 2, 4 and 6%, respectively, when the ozone layer decreases by 1%.

"Study of Greenhouse Effect Due to Radiation Active Gases, Freon and Others," H. Muramatsu (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto, Japan), 81-91. A meteorological simulation was used to calculate the variations of radiation and ambient temperature in the troposphere corresponding to the variations of radiatively active trace gases in the atmosphere. CFCs are responsible for about 10% of the total greenhouse effect. Predicts that in the period 1980 to 2030 this will increase to 30%, and ambient temperature will increase about 1.5 to 4.5K due to the greenhouse effect of CO2 and other trace gases over the next hundred years.

"Latest Topics Concerning Ozone Layer Observations," H. Akimoto (Nat. Inst. Environ. Studies, Ibaraki, Japan), 92-102. Discusses various causes of the ozone hole. Uses the Dobson spectrophotometer to determine the ozone concentrations and evaluate the long-term trend of global ozone. Also uses ozone laser radar to monitor ozone levels.

"Development of Alternatives to Freon," N. Ishikawa (Tokyo Inst. Tech., Tokyo), 114-119. Aims at designing the chemical structure of a non-polluting substitute for Freon--a chlorine-free compound or a chlorine-contained compound whose decomposition products do not reach the ozone layer. The most promising chlorine-free compound is HFC-134a. The best chlorine-contained compound is HCFC-123, followed by HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b.

"Results and Issues of Japan's Efforts in the Maintenance of the Earth Environment, Based on a Review of the Legal Aspect of Ozone Layer Protection," M. Kobayashi (Environ. Agency, Tokyo), 129-138. Japan signed the Montreal Protocol immediately following the adoption of the treaty. Suggests two ways of responding to resolutions of international organizations concerning global environmental problems: enforce international measures strictly and/or present a menu of various measures the adoption of which is subject to the environmental authorities of each country.

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