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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d89apr37

"Effect of Improved Physical Parameterizations on Simulations of Cloudiness and the Earth's Radiation Budget," A. Slingo (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), R.C. Wilderspin, R.N.B. Smith, J. Geophys. Res., 94(D2), 2281-2301, Feb. 20, 1989.

Describes development of a new version of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office 11-layer atmospheric general circulation model, with emphasis on the prediction of the fractional cloud cover and of the Earth's Radiation Budget. Discusses various changes to the model's physical parameterization, including revisions to the convection scheme to treat more accurately the effects of shallow cumulus convection, and removal of systematic errors in the thermodynamic structure of the marine boundary layer. Simulations from the new version are generally in good agreement with satellite measurements.

Item #d89apr38

"Dependence of Warm and Cold Climate Depiction on Climate Model Resolution," D. Rind (Goddard Space Flight Ctr., NASA, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025), J. Clim., 1(10), 965-997, Oct. 1988.

Discusses resolution dependency of climate change sensitivity, atmospheric dynamics and regional climate depiction. Results show that model resolution affects two key processes in the control runs, moist convection and the nonlinear transfer of kinetic energy into the zonal mean flow. With finer resolution there are stronger winds, more evaporation and a more active hydrological cycle. The doubled CO2 run using the finer grid has a greater decrease in high-level cloud cover, eddy energy, and eddy energy transports, and a greater increase in temperature, surface winds, precipitation and penetrative convection. Regional climate changes also differ with resolution.

Item #d89apr39

"An Earth Outgoing Longwave Radiation Climate Model. Part II: Radiation With Clouds Included," S.-K. Yang, G.L. Smith, F.L. Bartman (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109), ibid., 998-1018.

Further develops model to account for the presence of clouds and their influence on outgoing long wave radiation (OLWR). Results agreed well with the satellite observations. Clouds enhance the water vapor modulation of OLWR. Results also suggest that a simple parameterization of the long wave cooling should include a water vapor absorbing term.

Item #d89apr40

"The GISS Global Climate--Middle Atmosphere Model," D. Rind (Goddard Space Flight Ctr., NASA, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10023), R. Suozzo et al., J. Atmos. Sci., 45(3), Feb. 1, 1988.

"I. Model Structure and Climatology," 329-370. Describes extension of the GISS global climate model to include the middle atmosphere up to about 85 km. Results from a 5-year run compared with observations produce generally realistic fields of temperature and wind throughout the atmosphere up to about 75 km. Discusses strengths and deficiencies of simulations. Concludes that a coarse grid general circulation model with parameterized gravity wave drag can produce a reasonable simulation of the middle atmosphere.

"II. Model Variability Due to Interactions Between Planetary Waves, the Mean Circulation and Gravity Wave Drag," 371-386. Reviews the variability of the model on two time scales: interannual standard deviations, derived from the five-year control run, and intraseasonal variability as shown in stratospheric warmings. Variability on both time scales results from a complex set of interactions among planetary waves, the mean circulation, and gravity wave drag. Presents specific examples of interactions which suggest that variability in gravity wave forcing and drag are important to the variability of the middle atmosphere.

Item #d89apr41

"Body Force Circulation and the Antarctic Ozone Minimum," T.J. Dunkerton (Northwest Res. Assoc. Inc., POB 3027, Bellevue WA 98009), ibid., 427-438.

The decelerating effect of enhanced upper tropospheric wavedriving in winter and early spring induces a reverse component of the residual mean meridional circulation in the polar lower stratosphere, opposite to that induced by radiative cooling; certain circumstances can lead to upwelling. Discusses analytic and numerically derived properties of this generalized residual mean body force circulation.

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