February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 7, JULY 1992
IMPACTS OF ELEVATED CO2
"Photosynthesis and Water Relations of Big Bluestem (C4) and
Kentucky Bluegrass (C3) under High Concentration Carbon Dioxide," H. He
(Dept. Agron., Kansas State Univ., Manhattan KS 66506), D.J. Lawlor, E.T.
Kanemasu, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 95(1-2), 139-152, 1992.
Grasses were grown in a Kansas tallgrass prairie under ambient and doubled
levels of CO2. Among other influences, elevated CO2 increased the photosynthetic
rate of Kentucky bluegrass by 141% but did not affect the photosynthetic rate of
big bluestem. It decreased water requirements by 158% and 42%, respectively.
Two items from Plant Cell Environ., 15(3), Apr. 1992:
"Modeling Photosynthesis of Cotton Grown in Elevated CO2," P.C.
Harley (Duke Univ. Phytotron, Durham NC 27706), R.B. Thomas et al., 271-282.
A widely accepted model of C3 leaf photosynthesis was parameterized based on
plants grown at either 35 or 65 Pa CO2. To obtain reasonable agreement, it was
necessary to include phosphate limitation resulting from inadequate triose
phosphate utilization. Plants grown at high CO2 incorporated 30% more biomass
during the first 36 days of growth.
"Seasonal Fine Root Biomass Development of Sour Orange Trees Grown in
Atmospheres of Ambient and Elevated CO2 Concentration," S.B. Idso (U.S.
Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040), B.A. Kimball, 337-341.
Trees were grown in plastic-walled, open-top enclosures from seedlings for
3.5 years. Trees at elevated CO2 (300 micro mol/mol) had over twice the
fine-root biomass in the top 0.4 m of soil over the last 12 months.
"CO2LT: An Automated, Null-Balance System for Studying the Effects of
Elevated CO2 and Global Climate Change on Unmanaged Ecosystems," (see Prof.
Pubs./Clim. Change Impacts/Ecosystems, this issue--July 1992).
"Leaf Photosynthesis and Water Use of Big Bluestem under Elevated
Carbon Dioxide," M.B. Kirkham (Dept. Agron., Kansas State Univ., Manhattan
KS 66506), H. He et al., Crop Sci., 31(6), 1589-1594, Nov.-Dec.
Bluestem was grown in a tallgrass prairie at 337 or 658 micro mol/mol;
plastic cylinders maintained either a high water level (field capacity) or a low
level (half field capacity). Elevated CO2 reduced transpiration rate by 25% and
35%, respectively, under the high- and low-water treatments, and had other
Two items from Can. J. Bot., 69(11), Nov. 1991:
"Phenology and Growth in Four Annual Species Grown in Ambient and
Elevated CO2," E.G. Reekie (Biol. Dept., Acadia Univ., Wolfville, N.S. B0P
1X0, Can.), F.A. Bazzaz, 2475-2481.
Elevated CO2 (525 and 700 micro L/L) did not appear to affect development
through its effect on growth. The level of CO2 changed competitive outcome among
the four species; this and other changes were more closely related to the effect
of CO2 on growth than its effect on phenology.
"Photosynthetic Response of Geranium to Elevated CO2 as Affected by
Leaf Age and Time of CO2 Exposure," D.W. Kelly, P.R. Hicklenton, E.G.
Reekie (Acadia Univ., addr. above), 2482-2488.
Results suggest that photosynthesis at low CO2 was limited by CO2 regardless
of the developmental environment, whereas photosynthesis at high CO2 was limited
by the developmental characteristics of the leaf. Future studies should consider
leaf age in assessing response to elevated CO2.
"The Influence of Carbon Dioxide and Daily Photon Flux Density on
Optimal Leaf Nitrogen Concentration and Root:Shoot Ratio," D.W. Hilbert
(Systems Ecol. Res., San Diego State Univ., San Diego CA 92182), A.
Larigauderie, J.F. Reynolds, Ann. Bot., 68(4), 365-376, Oct.
Using a cost-benefit model, the leaf N concentration and root:shoot ratio
that maximize whole-plant relative growth rate were determined as a function of
the aboveground environment. The observed adjustments plants make to light and
CO2 appear to be adaptive.
"A General Relationship between CO2-Induced Increases in Net
Photosynthesis and Concomitant Reductions in Stomatal Conductance," S.B.
Idso (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040), Environ.
Exper. Bot., 31(4), 381-383, Oct. 1991. Measurements on sour orange
trees, cotton, soybeans and water hyacinth suggest that a plant's photosynthetic
response to CO2 enrichment is inversely proportional to its degree of
CO2-induced stomatal closure.
Comment and reply on "Modeling the Seasonal Contribution of a CO2
Fertilization Effect of the Terrestrial Vegetation to the Amplitude Increase in
Atmospheric CO2 at Mauna Loa Observatory," Tellus, 43B(3),
338-346, July 1991.
"Effects of Elevated CO2 Concentration on the Polyamine Levels of
Field-Grown Soybean at Three O3 Regimes," G.F. Kramer, E.H. Lee (Clim.
Stress Lab., USDA, ARS, 206 Bldg. 001, Beltsville MD 20705) et al., Environ.
Pollut., 73(2), 137-152, 1991.
Examination of the growth and physiological characteristics of plants grown
in open-top field chambers showed that increased CO2 ameliorated the deleterious
effects of increased O3.
"A Branch Exposure Chamber for Fumigating Ponderosa Pine to
Atmospheric Pollution," J.L.J. Houpis (Environ. Sci. Div., Lawrence
Livermore Lab., L-559, POB 5507, Livermore CA 94550), M.P. Costella, S. Cowles,
J. Environ. Qual., 20(2), 467-474, Apr.-June 1991. Describes the
design, construction and testing of an alternative tool to whole-tree enclosures
for the difficult task of exposing mature trees to controlled environments of
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