February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1992
STRATOSPHERIC OZONE: DISTRIBUTION, CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS
Four items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(3), July 6, 1992:
"Detection of Polar Stratospheric Clouds from NOAA-HIRS Data: A Case
Study," R. Meerkoetter (Dept. Atmos. Phys., German Aerospace Res. Estab.,
8031 Oberpfaffenhofen, Ger.), 1351-1354. Applies a bispectral approach for
temperature identification of semitransparent clouds to a major PSC event. Large
areas covered by dense PSCs are found, with a horizontal distribution in good
agreement with independent measurements.
"Absorption of HCl on Ice under Stratospheric Conditions: A
Computational Study," G.-J. Kroes (Dept. Chem., Univ. Cambridge, Cambridge
CB2 1EW, UK), D.C. Clary, 1355-1358. The calculated value of maximum surface
coverage of ice by HCl is much lower than recent experimental values for uptake
by polycrystalline ice. Questions the prevailing interpretation of such uptake
as due to surface adsorption.
"Ionic Mechanisms for Heterogeneous Stratospheric Reactions and
Ultraviolet Photoabsorption Cross Sections for NO2+, HNO3, and NO3- in Sulfuric
Acid," J.D. Burley (Pierce Hall, Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02139), H.S.
"Nitrosyl Sulfuric Acid and Stratospheric Aerosols," J.D. Burley
(address immed. above), H.S. Johnston, 1363-1366. Information found in
atmospheric and chemical literature suggests that nitrosyl sulfuric acid
(NOHSO4) may play an important role in stratospheric chemistry.
Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D9), June 20, 1992:
"Variations of Mean Zonal Winds Relating to the Ozone Hole," K.
Kawahira (Toyama Nat. College Technol., Toyama City 939, Japan), T. Hirooka,
10,157-10,163. Dynamical effects on the development of the Antarctic ozone hole have been investigated through the analysis of monthly mean zonal winds derived from geopotential height data. Results show that the dynamical condition appropriate for the development of the hole, less poleward transport of heat and ozone by planetary waves, had already been present during the appearance of the hole around 1980 and has continued.
"A Three Dimensional Modeling Study of the Influence of Planetary Wave Dynamics on Polar Ozone." J. Austin (Clarendon Lab., Parks R., Oxford OX1 3PU,UK), N. Butchart, 10,165-10,186. Model experiments show that polar stratospheric ozone amounts are sensitive to planetary wave forcing, with wave activity inhibiting ozone destruction. Wave-induced mean descent over the whole polar region is an important mechanism.
Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(12), June 19,
"The Effect of the Pinatubo Cloud on Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen
Fluoride," L. Wallace (Nat. Optical Astron. Observ., POB 26732, Tucson AZ
85726), W. Livingston, p. 1209. Ground-based spectroscopic observations showed
no enhancement of these species when the cloud was overhead.
"The 1991 Antarctic Ozone Hole; TOMS Observations," A. Krueger
(NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), M. Schoeberl et al., 1215-1218. The 1991
springtime decline as measured by satellite was similar to those of earlier deep
ozone hole years (1987, 1989, 1990); the minimum value (108 Dobson units) was 8
DU lower than previously observed.
"The Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS): A Shuttle-Based
Remote Sensing Experiment," C.L. Croskey (Dept. Elec. Eng., Penn State
Univ., Univ. Park PA 16802), N. Kampfer et al., IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory
& Techniques, 40(6), 1090-1100, June 1992.
The MAS will measure concentration profiles of ozone, chlorine monoxide, and
oxygen (for retrieval of temperature and pressure) through the middle
atmosphere. This paper describes fundamentals of the measurements, the design of
the radiometers and approaches for data analysis.
Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(11), June 2,
"Vertical Profiles of Ozone at McMurdo Station, Antarctica; Spring
1991," B.J. Johnson (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071),
T. Deschler, R.A. Thompson, 1105-1108. Forty-three balloon soundings of ozone
and pressure show severe ozone depletion for the third consecutive year.
"Observations of Reduced Ozone Concentrations in the Tropical
Stratosphere after the Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," W.B. Grant (NASA-Langley,
Hampton VA 23665), J. Fishman et al., 1109-1112. Ozone profiles obtained from
ECC sondes three to six months after the eruption, and aerosol profiles from a
lidar system, show a strong correspondence between decreased ozone and peak
aerosol loading. Chemical, radiative and dynamic mechanisms are discussed.
"On the Potential Importance of the Gas Phase Reaction CH3O2 + ClO
[yields] ClOO + CH3O and the Heterogeneous Reaction HOCl + HCl [yields] H2O +
Cl2 in 'Ozone Hole' Chemistry," P.J. Crutzen (M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB
3060, D-6500 Mainz, Ger.), R. M?ller et al., 1113-1116. These reactions may
cause almost complete conversion of HCl into ClOx radicals, leading to rapid
"Multireference Configuration Interaction Calculations of the
Low-Lying Electronic States of ClO2," K.A. Peterson (Battelle Mem. Inst.,
Richland WA 99352), H.J. Werner, J. Chem. Phys., 96(12),
8948-8961, June 15, 1992.
"Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Halogen Oxide Anions FO-, ClO-,
BrO-, IO-, OClO-, and OIO-," M.K. Gilles (Dept. Chem., Univ. Colorado,
Boulder CO 80309), M.L. Polak, W.C. Lineberger, J. Chem. Phys., 96(11),
8012-8020, June 1, 1992.
"Early Stratospheric Effects of the Pinatubo Eruption," G.P.
Gobbi (Ist. di Fisica dell'Atmosfera CNR, via G. Galilei, CP27, 00044 Frascati,
Italy), F. Congeduti, A. Adriani, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(10),
997-1000, May 22, 1992. Describes characteristics of the Mt. Pinatubo cloud
during the first six months after the eruption, with comparison to the El
"Characteristics of Antarctic Stratospheric Aerosols during the 1987
Ozone Depletion Episode Based on SAGE II Satellite Observations," N.-H. Lin
(Dept. Atmos. Sci., N. Carolina State Univ., Raleigh NC 27695), V.K. Saxena,
J. Geophys. Res., 97(D7), 7635-7649, May 20, 1992.
Stratospheric aerosols play an important role in the formation of polar
stratospheric clouds. This study focuses on (1) inference of the aerosol size
spectrum, and (2) the vertical, zonal, and columnar averages of aerosol
properties such as extinction coefficient, optical depth and surface area
"Stratospheric Clouds at South Pole during 1988," J.
Geophys. Res., 97(D5), Apr. 20, 1992.
"1. Results of Lidar Observations and Their Relationship to
Temperature," G. Fiocco (Physics Dept., Univ. "La Sapienza,"
Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185, Rome, Italy), M. Cacciani et al., 5939-5946.
Presents basic results from an extensive set of lidar echos collected from
May-October 1988, analyzing the relationship between backscattering cross
section and temperature, and statistical properties.
"2. Their Evolution in Relation to Atmospheric Structure and
Composition," D. Fu? (address immed. above), M. Cacciani et al.,
5947-5952. Discusses microphysical interpretation, distinction between Type I
and Type II polar stratospheric clouds, and seasonal evolution.
"Photochemical Decay Reactions of N2O5, HNO3, ClNO3 and BrNO3 in the
Energy Range 10-20 eV," H.W. Jochims (Inst. Theor. Chem., Free Univ.
Berlin, Takustr. 3, W-1000 Berlin 33, Ger.), W. Denzer et al., Berichte der
Bunsen Gesellschaft f?r Physikalische Chemie--An Intl. J. of Physical Chem.,
96(4), 573-578, Apr. 1992.
"On the Variability of the Stratosphere in the Arctic Regions in
Winter," K. Labitzke (Inst. Meteor., Free Univ. Berlin, D. Schafer Weg
6-10, W-1000 Berlin 41, Ger.), ibid., 93(3), 496-501, Mar. 1992.
Contrasts from an observational point of view the greater variability of the
Arctic stratosphere with the more intense, colder conditions of the Antarctic
stratosphere, and why the Arctic conditions are less conducive to large-scale
"The Heterogenous Reaction of HOCl + HCl [yields] Cl2 + H2O on Ice
and Nitric Acid Trihydrate: Reaction Probabilities and Stratospheric
Implications," J.P.D. Abbatt (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Mass. Inst. Technol.,
Cambridge MA 02139), M.J. Molina, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(5),
461-464, Mar. 3, 1992. Laboratory experiments show that this reaction may
provide an important additional path for chlorine activation in the polar
Three items from Plan. Space Sci., 40(2-3), Feb.-Mar.,
"The Changing Stratosphere," M.B. McElroy (Dept. Earth Sci.,
Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), Plan. Space Sci., 40(2-3),
373-401, Feb.-Mar. 1992.
Begins with a detailed review of the chemistry of springtime Antarctic ozone
depletion, including some discussion of midlatitude processes. Then discusses
implications for climate of changes in the abundance of ozone in the tropical
lower stratosphere. The relatively warm climates of the Eocene and Cretaceous
periods and the cold climates of the recent glacial epochs may be associated
with shallower and deeper stratospheres, respectively, and with fluctuations in
the Hadley circulation. Lower stratospheric ozone levels may be influenced by
levels of CO2.
"Natural and Anthropogenic Perturbations of the Stratospheric Ozone
Layer," G.P. Brasseur (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), 403-412. Reviews
and analyzes potential causes for reduced ozone abundance using a 2-D
chemical-radiative-dynamical model. Discusses effects of solar activity,
high-speed stratospheric aircraft, chlorofluorocarbons, the role of
heterogeneous chemistry, and impacts of large volcanic eruptions.
"Stratospheric Evidence of Relativistic Electron Precipitation,"
A.C. Aiken (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), 413-431. Evaluates whether
high-energy electrons precipitated into the atmosphere with sufficient energy to
affect the nitrogen oxide budget are modifying high-latitude Southern Hemisphere
ozone distribution. Examines electron density data gathered with a ground-based
sounder together with ozone mixing ratios from a satellite-borne SBUV.
"Sun-Controlled Spatial and Time-Dependent Cycles in the Climatic
Weather System," E.C. Njau (Intl. Ctr. Theoret. Phys., I-34100 Trieste,
Italy), Il Nuovo Cimento, 15C(1), 17-23, Jan.-Feb. 1992.
Demonstrates the existence and major features of certain cycles in the
Earth's atmosphere, using meteorological data. Eastward-moving,
latitudinally-aligned temperature fluctuations are expected to modulate
stratospheric ozone depletion between the two ozone holes.
"Retrieval of Ozone Profiles over Antarctica Using Laser Heterodyne
System," S.L. Jain (Div. Radio Sci., Nat. Phys. Lab., New Delhi 110012,
India), Indian J. Radio & Space Phys., 21(2), 110-115, Apr.
Describes a sophisticated system for monitoring vertical profiles of ozone
and other trace species through inverse solution of the radiative transfer
equation, and its application in Antarctica.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations