February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1993
the Stationarity of the Ozone Layer in Norway and U.S.S.R.,"
K. Henriksen (Auroral Observ., Univ. Tromsf, Norway), E.I. Terez
et al., J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 55(2), 145-154, Feb.
Long-term column ozone density measurements made in Norway and
the former USSR show no decreasing trend during the last two
"Satellite Ozone Monitoring Error," Nature, 361(6412),
505, Feb. 11, 1993. Letter on a slight error in the Nimbus-7 TOMS
from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(3), Feb. 5, 1993:
"Laboratory Measurements of the Loss of ClO on Pyrex, Ice
and NAT at 183K," R.D. Kenner (CSIRO Div. Appl. Phys.,
Lindfield, Australia 2070), 193-196. Rates of loss of ClO from
the gas phase on these surfaces are small, making it probable
that heterogeneous reactions involving these components are
unimportant in the winter stratosphere.
"Radiative Forcing Due to Ozone in the 1980s: Dependence
on Altitude of Ozone Change," M.D. Schwarzkopf (GFDL,
Princeton Univ., POB 308, Princeton NJ 08542), V. Ramaswamy,
205-208. Describes calculations using the GFDL radiative transfer
model, including the competing cooling from ozone depletion and
warming by increased tropospheric ozone.
items from J. Geophys. Res., 98(D1), Jan. 20, 1993:
"Visible and Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy at McMurdo
Station, Antarctica. 8. Observations of Nighttime NO2 and NO3
from April to October 1991," S. Solomon (Aeronomy Lab., 325
Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.P. Smith et al., 993-1000.
Vertical column abundances of NO2 and NO3 determined through
lunar absorption spectra were broadly consistent with model
predictions and daytime measurements. The concept of an extended
polar night as often applied in modeling studies appears
inconsistent with these observations.
"Polar Stratospheric Clouds at the South Pole in 1990:
Lidar Observations and Analysis," R.L. Collins (Dept. Elec.
Eng., Univ. Illinois, Urbana IL 61801), K.P. Bowman, C.S.
Gardner, 1001-1010. Presents observations from Dec. 1989 through
Oct. 1990. Evidence was found of upward-propagating gravity
waves, which apparently maintain the kilometer-scale vertical
structure of the clouds.
"A Global Analysis of the Ozone Deficit in the Upper
Stratosphere and Lower Mesosphere," J. Eluszkiewicz (Dept.
Geolog. Sci., Calif. Inst. Tech., Pasadena CA 91125), M. Allen,
1069-1082. Global measurements from the Limb Infrared Monitor are
combined with calculations with an efficient photochemical
equilibrium model to test the balance between odd oxygen
production and loss. Computed ozone abundances are systematically
lower than observations in the test case, which suggests,
contrary to the conclusions of other recent studies, a real
problem in model simulations of stratospheric ozone.
items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(1), Jan. 8,
"Tropical Ozone Loss Following the Eruption of Mt.
Pinatubo," M.R. Schoeberl (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD
20771), P.K. Bhartia et al., 29-32. TOMS measurements of
equatorial total ozone following the eruption show a decrease of
up to 6% which begins about a month later, consistent with the
time required for the SO2 to convert to sulfuric acid aerosol.
"Changes in Stratospheric Ozone and Temperature Due to
the Eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo," S. Chandra (NASA-Goddard,
Greenbelt MD 20771), 33-36. Changes in total column ozone deduced
from the Nimbus 7 TOMS and the NOAA-11 SBUV/2 spectrometers were
3-9% at various latitudes, but only 2-4% after removing the
effects of quasi-biennial oscillations and interannual
"Empirical Linkages between Arctic Sea Ice Extents and
Northern Hemisphere Mid-Latitude Column Ozone Levels," J.R.
Marko (Arctic Sci. Ltd.), D.B. Fissel, 37-40. The observed
correlations are discussed in terms of underlying mechanisms,
recent decreasing hemispheric ozone levels, and the pattern of
stratospheric-solar flux correlations that Labitzke and van Loon
(1992) have proposed could affect estimates of ozone trends.
"Evidence for Heterogeneous Reactions in the Antarctic
Autumn Stratosphere," J.G. Keys (Nat. Inst. Atmos. Res.,
Lauder, Central Otago, N. Zealand), P.V. Johnston et al., Nature, 361(6407),
49-51, Jan. 7, 1993.
Measurements of Antarctic stratospheric NO2 and HNO3
demonstrate that heterogeneous chemistry contributing to ozone
loss occurred on background aerosols in autumn, before
temperatures were low enough for polar stratospheric clouds to
items from Adv. Space Res., 13(1), Jan. 1993:
"Background Stratospheric Aerosol and Polar Stratospheric
Cloud Reference Models," M.P. McCormick (NASA-Langley,
Hampton VA 23665), P.H. Wang, M.C. Pitts, 7-29. Presents updated
reference models based on NASA satellite data, and discusses the
impacts of various volcanic eruptions.
"Revised Reference Model for Nitric Acid," J.C.
Gille (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), P.L. Bailey, C.A.
"Some Aspects of the Interaction between Chemical and
Dynamic Processes Relating to the Antarctic Ozone Hole" R.S.
Eckman (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), R.E. Turner et al.,
311-319. Investigates chemical-dynamical interactions through
analysis of observations and use of a 3-D chemical-transport
"Vapor Pressures of Solid Hydrates of Nitric Acid:
Implications for Polar Stratospheric Clouds," D.R. Worsnop
(Aerodyne Res. Inc., Billerica MA 01821), Science, 259(5091),
71-74, Jan. 1, 1993.
"Surface Areas and Porosities of Ices Used to Simulate
Stratospheric Clouds," L.F. Keyser (Jet Propulsion Lab.,
4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), M.T. Leu, J. Colloid
Interface Sci., 155(1), 137-145, Jan. 1993.
"Formation of Model Polar Stratospheric Cloud Films,"
A.M. Middlebrook (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), B.G.
Koehler et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 12(24),
2417-2420, Dec. 24, 1992. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
was used to examine the competitive growth of films
representative of polar stratospheric clouds.
from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D18), Dec. 20, 1992:
"Measurements and Model Calculations of HCl Column
Amounts and Related Parameters over McMurdo during the Austral
Spring in 1989," X. Liu (Phys. Dept., Univ. Denver, Denver
CO 80208), R.D. Blatherwick et al., 20,795-20,804. Model results
show that the rate of recovery of HCl to active chlorine in
springtime is consistent with its production by chlorine atoms
reacting with methane, and is dependent on the concentrations of
active chlorine species and NO molecules in the 12 to 22 km
"Diagnostic Model Study of the Seasonal Variations of
Global Ozone and the Antarctic Ozone Hole," H. Akiyoshi
(Dept. Appl. Phys., Fukuoka Univ., Fukuoka 814-01, Japan), M.
Uryu, 20,837-20,853. A simple 2-D model, which includes the
Hartmann parameterization of the Chapman cycle and three
components of the meridional circulation, simulates the main
features of the global and seasonal distributions of ozone.
Discusses the possibility of a weak October minimum in Antarctic
total ozone without introducing chlorine chemistry.
from Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(23), Dec. 2, 1992:
"Role of the BRO + HO2 Reaction in the Stratospheric
Chemistry of Bromine," G. Poulet (CNRS, 45071 Orl?ans Cedex
2, France), M. Pirre et al., 2305-2308. The impact of new
laboratory data for the reaction is estimated using a 1-D
"Components of Interannual Ozone Change Based on Nimbus 7
TOMS Data," L.L. Hood (Lunar & Planet. Lab., Univ.
Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721), J.P. McCormack, 2309-2312. Uses a
statistical regression model to estimate the dependence of total
ozone on the solar cycle and quasi-biennial oscillation and to
isolate the anthropogenic trend component, in 13 years of data.
The linear trend results agree with earlier studies; a return to
more rapid depletion is predicted during the next four years as
the solar minimum is approached.
"Eighth Conference on the Middle Atmosphere," R.R.
Garcia (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), Bull. Amer. Meteor.
Soc., 73(12), 2025-2033, Dec. 1992. Review of the Jan.
1992 meeting, with sessions on ozone depletion and stratospheric
"Impact of Heterogeneous Chemistry on Model Predictions of
Ozone Changes," C. Granier (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO
80307), G. Brasseur, J. Geophys. Res., 97(D16),
18,015-18,033, Nov. 20, 1992.
Reports extensive calculations with a 2-D chemical-transport
model of the middle atmosphere. When reactions on polar
stratospheric clouds are considered, enhanced ClO leads to
formation of a springtime ozone hole over Antarctica, but not in
the Arctic. When conversion of N and Cl compounds is assumed on
lower stratospheric sulfate particles present at all latitudes,
significant perturbations are also found. Volcanic aerosol
effects are discussed.
Effect of Stratospheric Water Vapor on the Heterogeneous Reaction
Rate of ClONO2 and H2O for Sulfuric Acid Aerosol," D.J.
Hofmann (NOAA Clim. Monit. Lab., 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303),
S.J. Oltmans, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(22),
2211-2214, Nov. 20, 1992.
"Direct Observation of ClO from Chlorine Nitrate
Photolysis," T.K. Minton (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak
Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), C.M. Nelson et al., Science, 258(5086),
1342-1345, Nov. 20, 1992. Molecular beam experiments provide a
direct measurement of the ClO product channel, and raise the
possibility of an analogous channel in ClO dimer photolysis.
"Observations of a New SAGE II Aerosol Extinction Mode
following the Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo," L.W. Thomason
(NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(21),
2179-2182, Nov. 3, 1992.
A previously unobserved, apparently transition mode with high
extinction but small inferred particle size may have a
significant impact on chemical and radiative processes in the
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