February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 8, AUGUST 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... CARBON CYCLE: SCIENCE & MANAGEMENT
"Rapid Cycling of High-Molecular-Weight
Dissolved Organic Matter [DOM] in the Ocean," R.M.W. Amon
(Marine Sci. Inst., Univ. Texas, Port Aransas TX 78373), R.
Benner, Nature, 369(6481), 549-552, June 16, 1994.
A study of water taken from the Gulf of Mexico during a diatom
bloom revealed that bacterial growth was three times greater and
respiration six times greater in the presence of
high-molecular-weight DOM than for low-molecular-weight DOM.
Results demonstrate that the bulk of oceanic DOM comprises small
molecules that cycle slowly and are relatively unavailable to
"The Impact of Intensive Forest Management on
Carbon Stores in Forest Ecosystems," O.N. Krankina (Dept.
For. Sci., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis OR 97331), M.E. Harmon, World
Resour. Rev., 6(2), 161-177, June 1994.
A long-term study in the U.S. and Russia suggests that
intensive management can reduce total woody biomass averaged over
a rotation to 10-25% that of natural old-growth forests.
Intensive management may generate a major carbon flux into the
atmosphere. Its effects should be included in future carbon
budgets and forest management strategies.
"Air-Sea Carbon Dioxide Exchange in the North
Pacific Subtropical Gyre: Implications for the Global Carbon
Budget," C.D. Winn (Sch. Ocean & Earth Sci., Univ.
Hawaii, Honolulu HI 96822), F.T. Mackenzie et al., Global
Biogeochem. Cycles, 8(2), 157-163, June 1994.
Measured dissolved inorganic carbon and titration alkalinity
over a four-year period. Presents a mechanism by which the region
can be a potential sink for 0.2 Gt C per year of atmospheric CO2.
However, the magnitude of this sink is relatively small, and the
data and interpretations are consistent with the argument for a
relatively large sink during the 1980s in Northern Hemisphere
"Beaver Impoundments in Temperate Forests as
Sources of Atmospheric CO2," J.B. Yavitt (Dept.
Nat. Resour., Fernow Hall, Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY 14853), T.J.
Fahey, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(11), 995-998, June 1, 1994.
Measurements in the Adirondack, New York, region, show the
impoundments, which cover 3% of the landscape, are important
sources of atmospheric CO2. The magnitude of the CO2
sink there would be 7% lower than estimates based only on the
"Mycorrhizae Alter Quality and Quantity of
Carbon Allocated Below Ground," P.T. Rygiewicz (Environ.
Res. Lab., US EPA, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis OR 97333), C.P.
Andersen, Nature, 369(6475), 58-60, May 5, 1994.
Measured directly carbon in and through all major pools of a
mycorrhizal (fungus-root) conifreous seedling (a complete carbon
budget). If elevated atmospheric CO2 and altered
climate stressors change mycorrhizal colonization in forests, the
role of forests in sequestering carbon could also be altered.
"Trends in Stomatal Density and 13C/12C Ratios
of Pinus flexilis Needles During Last Glacial-Interglacial
Cycle," P.K. Van de Water, S.W. Leavitt, J.L. Betancourt
(USGS, 1675 W. Anklam Rd., Tucson AZ 85745), Science,
264(5156), 239-242, Apr. 8, 1994.
Measurements, at sites selected to isolate the effects of
changing atmospheric CO2 levels, reveal shifts in
plant physiology and leaf morphology during the last 30,000
years. The Ù13C variations may help constrain hypotheses about
the redistribution of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere
during the last glacial-interglacial cycle.
"The Continental Carbon Cycle During the Last
Glacial Maximum," J. Servant (Lab. Aérol., 118, route
Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France), Atmos. Res.,
31(4), 253-268, Apr. 1994.
Estimates that the reduction of terrestrial carbon storage due
to the decrease in land surface temperature and to the extent of
the Northern Hemisphere ice sheet is 363-544 Gt. The simultaneous
46% decrease in atmospheric CH4 can be attributed to a reduction
in continental emissions sources (mainly at boreal latitudes) and
increased atmospheric OH.
"South American Tree Rings Show Declining Ù13C
Trend," S.W. Leavitt (Lab. Tree-Ring Res., Univ. Arizona,
Tucson AZ 85721), A. Lara, Tellus, 46B(2), 152-157, Apr.
A Ù13C chronology for alerce trees in Chile shows a trend
similar to that from studies in the Northern Hemisphere, and
provides the first evidence for interhemispheric reproducibility
of Ù13C chronologies. The trend conforms to that of Ù13C of
atmospheric CO2 determined from ice cores and direct
"The Gateway for Terrestrial Material Entering
the Ocean," C.A. Nittrouer (Marine Sci. Res. Ctr., State
Univ. of New York, Stoney Brook NY 11794), G.J. Brunskill, Eos,
75(16), 191-192, Apr. 19, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 9, June 1994.)
"Coastal Metabolism and the Oceanic Organic
Carbon Balance," S.V. Smith (Dept. Oceanog., Univ. Hawaii,
Honolulu, Hawaii), J.T. Hollibaugh, Rev. Geophys., 31(1),
75-89, Feb. 1993. (See GCCD, p. 9, June 1994.)
Two items from World Resour. Rev., 6(1), Mar.
"Forest Management Options to Conserve and Sequester
Terrestrial Carbon in the Russian Federation," O.N. Krankina
(Dept. For. Sci., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis OR 97331), R.K.
Dixon, 88-101. Estimates the carbon content of Russian forests to
be 220 Pg, using land-use and forest inventory data.
Establishment of forest plantations and forest management
practices can result in additional net carbon accumulation of
about 0.3-0.9 Pg per year.
"Carbon Balance in Mire Ecosystems," J. Päivänen
(Dept. For. Ecol., Univ. Helsinki, Unioninkatu 40 B, SF-00170
Helsinki, Fin.), H. Vasander, 102-111. An overview of carbon
dynamics in mires (wetland ecosystems maintained by a humid
climate and a high water table), and of a Finnish project to
study the effects of climate change and mire utilization.
"Carbon Dynamics in a Forested Peatland in
North-Eastern Ontario, Canada," D.J. Charman (Dept. Geog.
Sci., Univ. Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA, UK), R. Aravena,
B.G. Warner, J. Ecol., 82(1), 55-62, 1994.
Analysis of field data shows that the internal carbon dynamics
of peatlands are more complex than previously thought. Hydrology
may be an important factor in the supply of source carbon for
"Pre-Industrial Particulate Emissions and
Carbon Sequestration from Biomass Burning in North America,"
J.S. Clark (Dept. Bot., Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706), P.D.
Royall, Biogeochem., 24(1), 35-51, Jan. 1994. (See Trend
Special issue: "Carbon Cycling: Regional and
Global Factors Affecting Climate Change," J.R.E. Harger,
K.W. Sorenson, M.A.K. Khalil, Eds., Chemosphere, 27(6),
1993 (Pergamon Press). Selected papers from a workshop (Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia; Oct. 1991), organized by UNESCO, the Dept. of
Environment of Malaysia, and UNEP.
"Potential Limits of Human Dominated Fossil Energy Based
Global Ecosystems," J.R.E. Harger, 907-946.
"Palaeoecology, Past Climate Systems, and C3/C4
Photosynthesis," R.A. Spicer, 947-978.
"Climate Models: Rationale, Status, and Promises,"
P. Martin, 979-998.
"Carbon Dynamics in Peatlands and Other Wetland Soils:
Regional and Global Perspectives," E. Maltby, P. Immirzi,
"Tropical Rain Forests as Carbon Sinks," E.
"The Oceanic Anthropogenic CO2 Sink,"
C.-T.A. Chen, 1041-1064.
"Indonesian Peat Swamp Forests and Their Role as a Carbon
Sink," K.W. Sorensen, 1065-1082.
"Sedimentary Calcium Carbonate Dissolution in the Gulf of
Thailand and Its Role as a Carbon Dioxide Sink," A.
"Mangroves: A Carbon Source and Sink," O.J. Eong,
"Policy Options to Reduce CO2 Release
Resulting from Deforestation and Biomass Burning in
Indonesia," D. Murdiyarso, 1109-1120.
"The Southeast Asian Marine Aquatic Environment, the
Carbon Cycle and the Need for Regional Cooperative
Research," A. Soegiarto, 1121 ff.
"Carbon Uptake Experiments with a
Zonally-Averaged Global Ocean Circulation Model," T.F.
Stocker (Phys. Inst., Univ. Bern, 3012 Bern, Switz.), W.S.
Broecker, Tellus, 46B(2), 103-122, Apr. 1994.
Three items from Global Biogeochem. Cycles,
8(1), Mar. 1994:
"Uptake of Inorganic Carbon and Nitrate by Marine
Plankton and the Redfield Ratio," K. Banse (Sch. Oceanog.,
Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), 81-84.
"Variations of Marine Plankton Ù13C with Latitude,
Temperature, and Dissolved CO2 in the World
Ocean," R. Goericke (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA
92093), B. Fry, 85-90.
"Carbon Isotope Fractionation by Marine Phytoplankton in
Culture: The Effects of CO2 Concentration, pH,
Temperature, and Species," K.R. Hinga (Grad. Sch. Oceanog.,
Univ. Rhode Island, Narragansett RI 02882), M.A. Arthur et al.,
"Modeling Carbon Storage Profiles in Temperate
Forest Humic Loamy Soils of France," D. Arrouays (Inst.
Natl. Recherche Agron., SESCPF, BP 81, 33140, Pont de la Maye,
France), P. Pelissier, Soil Sci., 157(3), 185-192, Mar.
"Carbon Dioxide Consumption During Soil
Development," O.A. Chadwick (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak
Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), E.F. Kelly et al., Biogeochem.,
24(3), 115-127, 1994.
"Automated Monitoring of Nitrous Oxide and
Carbon Dioxide Flux from Forest Soils," N.S. Loftfield
(Inst. Soil Sci. & For. Nutr., Buesgenweg 2, 3400 Goettingen,
Ger.), R. Brumme, F. Beese, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 56(4),
1147-1150, July-Aug. 1992.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations