February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 1, NUMBER 2, AUGUST 1988
"Ultraviolet Radiation Levels During the Antarctic Spring,"
J.E. Frederick (Dept. Geophys. Sci., Univ. Chicago, 5734 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago
IL 60637), H.E. Snell, Science, 241, 438-440, July 22, 1988.
The decrease in atmospheric ozone over Antarctica during spring implies
enhanced levels of UV radiation received at the earth's surface. Observations at
McMurdo Station show biologically effective irradiance due to low ozone amounts
comparable to December solstice amounts. Life indigenous to Antarctica thereby
experiences a greatly extended period of summerlike UV radiation levels.
"Interactive Effects of CO2 and Environment on Photosynthesis of
Azolla," S.G. Allen (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway,
Phoenix AZ 85040), S.B. Idso et al., Agric. For. Meteor., 42(2-3),
209-17, Mar. 1988.
The aquatic fern was grown outside between September and May in open-top CO2
enrichment chambers continuously supplied with either 640 or 340 micro l CO2/l
air. Net photosynthesis was influenced by significant interactions between CO2
level and short-wave solar radiation as well as air temperature. Under the more
favorable conditions of high light intensity and high temperature, the net
photosynthesis rates in the high CO2 treatment were as much as 70% greater than
for those in the low CO2 treatment. Studies which attempt to predict plant
responses to the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration must also consider
concurrent environmental changes.
"Causes and Effects of Sea Level Rise," J.G. Titus (Sea Level
Rise, U.S. EPA), Northeastern Environ. Sci., 6(2), 60-66, June
The worldwide average sea level depends primarily on the shape and size of
ocean basins, the amount of water in the basins and the average density of
seawater. Subsidence and emergence, due to natural factors such as isostatic and
tectonic adjustments of the land surface as well as human-induced factors such
as oil and water extraction, can cause trends in relative sea levels. Although
the potential consequences of accelerated sea level rise are uncertain, it is
possible to implement inexpensive protective coastal management measures now,
particularly in terms of land use policy.
"Barrier Evolution During Sea Level Rise: South Shore of Long
Island, New York," S.P. Leatherman (Lab. Coastal Res., Univ. Maryland,
College Pk. MD 20742), W. Panagetou, ibid., 76-81.
New evidence strongly suggests that the ancestral barriers have migrated
landward continuously, albeit intermittently, during the Holocene, and that
in-place drowning and shoreline skipping have not occurred. These findings have
important implications for future barrier behavior during periods of accelerated
sea-level rise caused by the greenhouse effect.
"Relative Role of Stomatal and Aerodynamic Resistance in
Transpiration of a Tomato Crop in a CO2-Enriched Greenhouse," Y.A. Shaer
(Dept. Soil Sci., Texas A&M Univ., College Sta. TX 77843), C.H.M. Van Bavel,
ibid., 42(1-2), 77-85, Oct. 1987.
Three adjacent ventilated mini-greenhouses were planted with equal numbers
of tomato plants at optimum levels of water and nutrients, and CO2 levels were
maintained during daytime at about 340, 700 or 1000 ppmv, to investigate the
roles of epidermal and aerodynamic resistance at high CO2 levels. Aerodynamic
resistance dominated gas exchange by the plants even at the highest CO2 levels.
"Effects of Climatic Variability and Possible Climatic Change on
Reliability of Wheat Cropping--A Modelling Approach," G.L. Hammer (Agronomy
Dept., Kansas State Univ., Manhatten KS 66505), D.R. Woodruff, J.B. Robinson,
Simulation studies, using an appropriate model of the cropping system and
long-term (92-year) rainfall records, were used to derive yield probability
distributions for sites throughout the Australian wheat belt and surroundings.
The distributions and associated economic analyses indicated that expansion of
wheat cropping in this area is likely. Trends in simulated yield sequences were
compared with analyses of factors associated with recent climatic change;
implications of this are discussed.
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