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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 1, NUMBER 3, SEPTEMBER 1988

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY


Item #d88sep35

"A New Laboratory Source of Ozone and Its Potential Atmospheric Implications," T.G. Slanger (Chem. Phys. Lab., SRI International, Menlo Park CA 94025), L.E. Jusinki et al., Science, 241(4868), 945-950, Aug. 19, 1988.

Explains an autocatalytic, low energy mechanism of O3 production from O2. It may explain the deficiency which exists in current models of O3 photochemistry in the upper atmosphere and mesosphere, in that more O3 is found than can be explained.


Item #d88sep36

"Atmospheric Ozone at South Pole, Antarctica, in 1986," W.D. Komhyr (Air Resour. Lab., NOAA, Boulder CO 80303), S.J. Oltmans, R.D. Grass, J. Geophys. Res., 93(D5), 5167-5184, May 20, 1988.

Vertical profile ozone distributions and variations and total annual ozone levels were measured with electrochemical concentration cell ozonesondes and a Dobson spectrophotometer. Total ozone decreased by about 40% in September-October. Suggests a correspondence between El Niņo related highs in sea surface temperature anomalies in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and lows in October-December total ozone averages observed at the South Pole in the 1960s and 1970s. The intense 1982-1983 El Niņo probably contributed to an observed springtime ozone decrease. Other factors in ozone destruction such as mountain-wave induced vertical air motions are examined.


Item #d88sep37

"Vertical Column Abundance Measurements of Atmospheric Hydroxyl from 26° , 40° , and 65° N," C.R. Burnett (Dept. Phys., Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton FL 33431), K.R. Minschwaner, E.B. Burnett, ibid., 5241-5253.

Theoretical models of OH agree well with the pre-1980 abundances, but recent data appear to require a significant change in the atmospheric photochemistry. Large Florida OH abundance excursions with respect to Colorado levels were seen in the wintertime of 1980, 1984 and 1986 and suggest the possibility of a relationship with the quasi-biennial oscillation in tropical stratospheric winds. Other anomalies in measurements at all three sites are discussed.


Item #d88sep38

"Land-Use Change in the Soviet Union Between 1850 and 1980: Causes of a Net Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere," J.M. Melillo (Ecosyst. Ctr., Marine Biol. Lab., Woods Hole MA 02543), J.R. Fruci et al., Tellus, 40B(2), 116-128, Apr. 1988.

A detailed analysis of the history of land-use change showed that the net carbon flux in the USSR was about zero in 1980, in contrast to previous analyses showing USSR to be a net carbon sink. Regrowth of forest vegetation following harvest showed an annual net storage for the period 1955-1975, but this was balanced by a net release to the atmosphere by a variety of processes such as the oxidation of woody debris and decay of wood products.


Item #d88sep39

"Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Measurements in the Remote Global Troposphere, 1981-1984," T.J. Conway (Air Resour. Lab., NOAA, Boulder CO 80303), P. Tans et al., ibid., 81-115.

Carbon dioxide concentration measurements were made about weekly at 22 sites during 1981-1984. Selected data were analyzed using an objective curve fitting method which improves estimation of uncertainties associated with derived parameters. The latitudinal distribution of annual mean CO2 concentration at the network sites shows significant interannual variability possibly related to the 1982-1983 El Niņo/Southern Oscillation event. There was no evidence of an overall trend, but significant interannual and interstation variability in the CO2 growth rate was also observed.


Item #d88sep40

"Antarctic Chlorine Chemistry: Possible Global Implications," J.M. Rodriguez (Atmos. Environ. Res. Inc., Cambridge, Mass.), M.K.W. Ko, N.D. Sze, Geophys. Res. Lett., 15(3), 257-260, Mar. 1988.

Occurrence of heterogeneous reactions on the surface of polar stratospheric clouds is a necessary component of the chlorine-related chemical mechanisms proposed to explain the recently observed decrease of ozone during Antarctic spring. Of the two heterogeneous processes considered here with a one-dimensional model, the reaction (ClNO3 + HCl) could have a larger impact on stratospheric ozone. Suggests monitoring of stratospheric concentrations of ClO, HCl, OClO and aerosols at various sites for 10-20 years to establish which reactions are occurring.


Item #d88sep41

"Nighttime and Daytime Variation of Atmospheric NO2 from Ground-Based Infrared Measurements," J.-M. Flaud (Lab. Atmos., Univ. P.M. Curie, C.N.R.S., Tour 13, 4 place Jassieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05), C. Camy-Peyret et al., ibid., 261-264.

A rather rapid decrease of the NO2 amount during the night has been observed and its daytime increase from sunrise to sunset has been confirmed. A comparison with the predictions of a photochemical model is given.


Item #d88sep42

"Aircraft Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Dioxide over the Japanese Islands," M. Tanaka (Upper Atmos. Res. Lab., Tohoku Univ., Sendai 980, Japan), T. Nakazawa et al., Tellus, 40B(1), 16-22, Jan. 1988.

Samples were collected aboard commercial airliners during 1982-85 to elucidate spatial and temporal variations within the global CO2 cycle between 26° N and 38° N. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of upper tropospheric CO2 decreased gradually southward, and was delayed about a month. The concentration difference between the lowest and highest layers sampled was about 2 ppmv. The secular trend of CO2 concentration over the southernmost part of Japan was almost the same as at the higher latitudes.


Item #d88sep43

"Future Emission Scenarios for Chemicals That May Deplete Stratospheric Ozone," J.K. Hammit (Rand Corp., Santa Monica, Calif.), F. Camm et al., Nature, 330(6150), 711-716, Dec. 24, 1987.

Scenarios are developed for long-term future emissions of seven of the most important manmade chemicals that may deplete ozone, and the corresponding effect on stratospheric ozone concentrations is calculated using a one-dimensional atmospheric model. The scenarios are based on detailed analysis of the markets for products that use these chemicals, and span a central 90% probability interval for the chemicals' joint effect on calculated ozone abundance, assuming no additional emission regulations.


Item #d88sep44

"Nitrous Oxide Production Throughout the Year from Fertilized and Manured Maize Fields," R.L. Cates Jr. (Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706), D.R. Keeney, J. Environ. Qual., 16(4), 443-447, Oct. 1987.

Two field sites on a loam soil cropped to maize and managed at two high N levels were monitored for N2O concentration in the soil atmosphere, and rate of emission from the soil surface. Most of the N2O was emitted between mid-June and the end of July when the soil was warm and NH4+-N was present, and at spring thaw the following year when soils were cold and nearly water saturated. At thaw, an apparent physical release period occurred and N2O flux was higher than during most of the growing season.

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