February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1989
"Precipitation Fluctuations Over Global Land Areas Since the Late
1800's" H.F. Diaz (ERL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), R.S.
Bradley, J.K. Eischeid, J. Geophys. Res., 94(D1), 1195-1210,
Jan. 20, 1989.
Objectives of the study were to delineate the long-term temporal and spatial
characteristics of precipitation variations; compare these results with the
northern hemisphere study and assess the degree of similarity of spatial change
during recent decades in comparison with GCM experiments using doubled CO2
concentrations; examine plausible mechanisms that may have contributed to the
observed changes. An analysis of southern hemisphere land precipitation records
indicates an increase in mean annual precipitation since the 1940s, with
positive anomalies, compared to the 1921-1960 reference period, occurring during
approximately the last 15 years in all seasons except southern summer
(December-February). The combined data sets of both hemispheres provided land
precipitation indices for the tropics, subtropics and extratropical latitudes as
well as a global average continental index.
"Variations and Trends in Tropospheric and Stratospheric Global
Temperatures, 1958-87," J.K. Angell (ARL, NOAA, Silver Spring MD 20910),
J. Clim., 1(12), 1296-1313, Dec. 1988.
Examines variations and trends for seven climatic zones, both hemispheres,
and the world for the intervals 1958-87 and 1973-87, based on 63
well-distributed radiosonde stations. Among other results these data indicate
increases of year-average global temperature at the surface, and in the
tropospheric 850-300 mb layer, of 0.08C (10yr)-1 and 0.09C (10 yr)-1,
respectively. Discusses in detail the close relation between sea-surface
temperature in the eastern equatorial Pacific and tropospheric temperature in
"Urbanization: Its Detection and Effect in the United States Climate
Record," T.R. Karl (NCDC, NOAA, Fed. Bldg., Asheville NC 28801), ibid.,
1(11), 1099-1123, Nov. 1988.
Develops equations that relate the effect of urban growth, measured by
increasing population, to the mean seasonal and annual temperature: the diurnal
maximum, minimum, average and range. Results indicate urbanization decreases the
daily maxima in all seasons except winter and the temperature range in all
seasons. It increases the diurnal minima and the daily mean in all seasons. The
impact of urbanization is not large in relation to decadal changes of
temperature in the U.S. due to the greater proportion of rural stations in the
"Predictions of Average Heating of the Earth-Atmosphere System in the
Next 40 Years by an Increase of the Greenhouse Effect," M. Deserti (Ist.
FISBAT, CNR, Bologna, Italy), T. Claudio, Acqua Aria, No. 2, 211-226,
Feb. 1988. In Italian.
Describes predictions of mean concentration trends for atmospheric gases as
well as trends of the consequent atmospheric heating from climate models.
Concludes that, should current concentrations remain stable during the next
decades, the global climate will still be subjected to strong heating effects.
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