February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1989
"Ozone Calculations With Large Nitrous Oxide and Chlorine Changes,"
D. Kinnison (Dept. Chem., Univ. Calif., Berkeley CA 94720), H. Johnston, D.
Wuebbles, J. Geophys. Res., 93(D11), 14,165-14,175, Nov. 20,
Uses the standard Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory one-dimensional
chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere to
reinvestigate NOx-Clx interactions relative to stratospheric ozone. This study
includes unrealistic conditions to obtain a new perspective on the effect of
possible atmospheric perturbations. The nitrous oxide boundary value is varied
from 1/4 to 8 times the reference value of 300 ppbv. Stratospheric Clx is varied
from 0 to 22 ppbv. Special atmospheres are considered in which all HOx, NOx, Clx
or combinations of these are omitted from the reference atmosphere.
"Measurements of Stratospheric Columns of Nitric Oxide Made with
Zeeman Modulator Radiometer During Map/Globus 1985," R.L. McKenzie (Phys. &
Eng. Lab., Lauder, Central Otago, Priv. Bag Omakau, New Zealand), G.D. Peskett,
H.K. Roscoe, ibid., 14,177-14,185.
Results from a high altitude observatory show unexpected short-term
variabilities in the NO column above 25 km. Possible causes are discussed. The
observed column amount of NO and its diurnal variability are consistent with the
predictions of the Cambridge one-dimensional diurnal photochemical model.
Observations of NO2 imply that when the likely mesopheric contribution to the NO
column is considered, the measured and predicted NO/NO2 column ratios are in
"The 1987 Antarctic Ozone Hole: A New Record Low," A.J. Krueger
(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Ctr., Code 616, Greenbelt MD 20771), M.R. Schoeberl
et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 15(12), 1365-1368, Nov. 1988.
Compared with previous years, the 1987 October zonal mean total ozone is
substantially lower poleward of 60° S. Antarctic total ozone in 1987 also
showed the greatest rate of ozone decrease as well as the longest persistence of
the ozone hole. Data used are the archived results of Version 5.0 TOMS data
"On the Growth of Nitric and Sulfuric Acid Aerosol Particles Under
Stratospheric Conditions," P. Hamill (Phys. Dept., San Jose State Univ.,
San Jose CA 95192), R.P. Turco, O.B. Toon, J. Atmos. Chem., 7(3),
287-315, Oct. 1988.
Presents a theory for the formation of frozen aerosol particles and polar
stratospheric clouds in the Antarctic stratosphere that may be involved in the
springtime depletion of ozone. Suggests that condensed ices are composed
primarily of nitric acid and water with small admixtures of other compounds such
as H2SO4 and HCl in solid solution. The assumed particle formation mechanism is
in agreement with the magnitude and seasonal behavior of the optical extinctions
observed in the winter polar stratosphere.
"Ultraviolet Absorption Cross-Sections of Chloro and
Chlorofluoro-Methanes at Stratospheric Temperatures," P.C. Simon (Inst. d'Aèronomie
Spatiale de Belgique, 3, Ave. Circulaire, B1180 Brussels, Belgium), D. Gillotay
et al., ibid., 7(2), 107-135, Aug. 1988.
Presents absorption cross sections of nine halomethanes and compares them
with previous determinations made for comparable temperature ranges. The largest
temperature effect, which takes place near the absorption threshold, decreases
the absorption cross section up to 50% for highly chlorinated methanes, but is
negligible for molecules highly stabilized by hydrogen and/or fluorine. Presents
extrapolated values for temperatures of aeronomical interest as well as
parametrical formulas which give absorption cross section values for given
wavelength and temperature ranges.
"Simultaneous Measurements of HNO3, NO2, O3, N2O, CH4, H2O and CO
and Their Latitudinal Variations as Deduced from Air-Borne Infrared
Spectrometry," F. Karcher (Ctr. Nat. de Recherches Meteorologiques,
Toulouse, France), M. Amodei et al., Ann. Geophys., Atmos. Hydrospheres
Space Sci. (France), 6(4), 425-444, Aug. 1988.
Eleven aircraft flights of the mission Stratoz 3 recorded measurements from
which integrated column abundances were deduced above 11.6 km at various
latitudes between 64° N and 57° S. Among the noteworthy points were: 1)
the existence of a large variation versus latitude of the column density of
HNO3, 2) an increase of the column density of NO2 versus latitude, at a faster
rate in the summer than in the winter hemisphere, and 3) a similarity between
column contents of NO2, O3 and HNO3 at 57° S in June and those recently
reported for springtime over Antarctica, suggesting that the anomalous chemistry
of the ozone hole formation may operate before springtime.
"Polar Stratospheric Clouds and the Antarctic Ozone Hole," L.R.
Poole (NASA-Langley Res. Ctr., Hampton VA), M.P. McCormick, J. Geophys. Res.,
93(D7), 8423-8430, July 20, 1988.
Presents a theoretical model of the formation and growth of polar
stratospheric clouds. Assumes three stages: 1) a precursor stage of supercooled
H2SO4-H2O stratospheric aerosol droplets at temperatures well above the frost
point, 2) an intermediate stage of PSC particle formation by codeposition of
HNO3.3H2O at temperatures near, but above, the frost point, and 3) a final stage
of deposition of pure water ice and HNO3.3H2O at temperatures below the frost
point. Discusses the calculated temperature dependence of optical
"Reconstruction of the Concentration Fields of Atmospheric Gases
from the Data of Sounding Along Tangential Paths," G.S. Gurevich, V.U.
Khattatov, Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Ocean. Phys., 24(6),
594-600, June 1988.
Suggests a new approach to the problems of satellite tomography based on the
expansion of the unknown concentration field of an atmospheric gas by a system
of approximate proper functions of the corresponding integral equation. Obtains
expressions for corrections to the approximation of a locally spherically
symmetric atmosphere. Shows that, in the region of the ozone hole, these
corrections may reach significant values.
"Microwave Remote-Sensing Measurements of Upper-Atmospheric Water
Vapour and Ozone from a Balloon-Borne Platform," C.J. Gibbins (Rutherford
Appleton Lab., Chilton, UK), A.W.J. Dawkins, B.M. Maddison, Planet. &
Space Sci. (UK), 36(6), 607-620, June 1988.
Describes experiment flown during the Map/Globus campaign in France in 1983.
Compared with previous measurements and current photochemical models of the
upper atmosphere, results are found to be generally consistent with present
understanding of the upper atmosphere.
"Laser Heterodyne System for Atmospheric Studies-Ozone," S.L.
Jain (Div. of Radio Sci., Nat. Phys. Lab., New Delhi, India), B.C. Arya,
J. Opt. (India), 16(4), 102-109, Oct.-Dec. 1987.
Explains in detail the development and design of the infrared laser
heterodyne system. The data obtained by this system have been inverted to
retrieve ozone height profiles that are compared with those obtained by balloon
measurements over Delhi.
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Index of Abbreviations