February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1989
OZONE DESTRUCTION MECHANISM ISOLATED. The National Science
Foundation has announced research results that identify the chemical mechanism
leading to the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in the Southern Hemisphere
spring. Ground-based Antarctic measurements made by scientists from the State
University of New York at Stony Brook implicate chlorine monoxide, originating
from chlorofluorocarbon emissions, confirming a mechanism proposed last year by
Mario Molina of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena. Bromine compounds
appear to play a minor role.)
ARCTIC OZONE INVESTIGATION UNDERWAY. Scientists from the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and other research organizations from the
United States and European countries are using instrumented aircraft, balloons
and satellite data to investigate ozone-depleting processes in the Arctic
stratospheric polar vortex. The field experiment was planned for January 1
through February 15, 1989, a time when polar stratospheric clouds, implicated in
chlorine-related ozone destruction, are expected to form. The following give
more details on this and other recent research on ozone depletion:
"First-Footers to Seek Arctic Ozone Hole," New Scientist,
p. 4, Dec 24-31, 1988.
"Ozone Depletion Spreads Around the Globe," ibid., p. 16,
Dec. 10. At a London meeting, scientists called for global monitoring of
ultraviolet radiation reaching the ground through the ozone layer, and a total
ban on CFCs.
"Deeper Ozone Hole Predicted for Next Year," ibid. A
biennial oscillation in stratospheric air circulation suggests Antarctic ozone
depletion will be stronger in 1989.
"Acid Drops Hint at New Ozone Problem," ibid., p. 34, Dec.
3. Experiments indicate the type of reactions involved in Antarctic ozone
destruction may also occur at lower latitudes.
"Dynamics Weaken the Polar Hole," M.R. Schoeberl, Nature,
420-421, Dec. 1. How atmospheric circulation mechanisms weakened this year's
Antarctic ozone hole.
"Clouds Without a Silver Lining," R. Monastersky, Science News,
249-251, Oct. 15. Summarizes the growing understanding of the role of polar
stratospheric clouds in ozone destruction.
"Coming Soon: The Next Ozone Hole," D. MacKenzie, New
Scientist, 38-39, Sep. 1. Covers results of an August meeting of atmospheric
scientists in Göttingen, West Germany and their concerns over research
funding and the extent to which "safe" CFC alternatives will destroy
IGBP RESEARCH PLAN DEVELOPS. A comprehensive plan for a decade of
global research was discussed by scientists at a meeting of the International
Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) in Stockholm in October 1988. Initiated by
the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) in 1986, the IGBP intends
to describe and understand the physical, chemical and biological processes that
regulate the Earth system, the unique environment it provides for life, changes
that are occurring, and the influence of human actions. The three major program
components are modeling of earth system processes on a regional to global scale,
observation and modeling of key phenomena across the globe, experimental
research on processes relevant to global-scale cycles. National committees have
been established in over 20 countries, including some developing nations. Based
on discussions at the Stockholm meeting, detailed plans will be developed for
several programs of research to begin in 1990. Close contact with other major
international projects will insure the best use of resources. A fundamental
component of the program will be a worldwide network of Geosphere-Biosphere
Observatories. The IGBP is currently funded by national governments, the ICSU,
the United Nations and private foundations, but continued funding will be
necessary through individual national programs.
Temporary headquarters for the IGBP is the office of its executive director,
Thomas Rosswall, at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Box 50005, S-104 05
Stockholm, Sweden (tel. +46-8-166448; telefax +46-8-166405). A series of reports
being issued on the developing program is available; a "Global Change News"
series began on p. 299 of Ambio, XVII(4), 1988. The United
States contribution is coordinated by the Committee for Global Change (CGC);
contact John Perry or Ruth DeFries at the National Research Council, 2101
Constitution Ave. NW, Washington DC 20418 (202-334-2000). Further information is
contained in the following:
Intl. Environ. Rptr., 590-591, Nov. 1988. Discusses the Stockholm
"The Science of the Thin Green Smear," New Scientist,
24-26, Nov. 19. Discusses problems faced in organizing IGBP, pressures to
emphasize short-term goals, and needed improvements in large computer models.
"The--IGBP: Towards a Plan for Action," "NAS/NRC Committee on
Global Change," Earthquest (issued quarterly by Univ. Corp. Atmos.
Res., POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), 15-16, Summer 1988. Includes activities of
the U.S. committee.
"First IGBP Topic: Past Global Change," Eos, p. 1652, Dec.
20. At the October Stockholm meeting, the first scientific steering committee
was established; it will study records of past global change over a full
"Second Meeting on IGBP," ibid., p. 1598, Nov. 22. An
account of a planning meeting in Cambridge, Massachusetts in February 1988.
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