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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 7, JULY 1989

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
CHEMICAL SOURCES


Item #d89jul50

"Continuous Infrared Analysis of N2O in Combustion Products," T.A. Montgomery (UCI Combustion Lab., Univ. Calif., Irvine CA 92717), G.S. Samuelsen, L.J. Muzio, JAPCA, 39(5), 721-726, May 1989.

Evaluates a prototype continuous N2O analyzer and studies the N2O emissions from a pulverized coal-fired boiler. Found the analyzer is capable of measuring N2O down to a few ppm; N2O levels were substantially lower than levels previously attributed to such sources. This suggests that N2O levels are not a substantial fraction of NOx levels, as previously suggested by analysis techniques that were subject to error.


Item #d89jul51

"Fluxes of N2O at the Sediment-Water and Water-Atmosphere Boundaries of a Nitrogen-Rich River," H.F. Hemond (Dept. Civil Eng., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), A.P. Duran, Water Resour. Res., 25(5), 839-846, May 1989.

Fluxes of N2O were measured using a mass-balance approach in a small river in Massachusetts where it receives wastewater treatment plant effluent. The observed atmospheric flux averaged 0.25 mg N2O m-2h-1, and was among the highest reported fluxes for aquatic systems on a per-area basis. The largest fraction of the N2O released to the atmosphere was produced in the treatment plant per se. During the cold season, N2O was produced in the river sediment; during the warm season, the sediment was a sink for N2O.


Item #d89jul52

"Evolutionary Pressures on Planktonic Production of Atmospheric Sulphur," K. Caldeira (Dept. Appl. Sci., New York Univ., 26 Stuyvesant St., New York NY 10003), Nature, 337(6209), 732-734, Feb. 23, 1989.

Calculations of relative evolutionary pressure in models of individual selection and group selection suggest that neither climate modulation nor altruism could have been the primary factors in the evolution of mid-ocean DMS production. Although a DMS/climate feedback loop may have a role in modulating fluctuations in the earth's climate, mid-ocean DMS production can be explained by selection on local interactions and not in evolutionary feedbacks from proposed climate modulation.


Item #d89jul53

"Production of Dimethylsulfonium Propionate and Dimethlsulfide by Phytoplankton in Estuarine and Coastal Waters," R.L. Iverson (Dept. Oceanog., Florida State Univ., Tallahassee FL 32306), F.L. Nearhoof, M.O. Andreae, Limnol. Oceanog., 34(1), 53-67, Jan. 1989.

Determined the concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and its metabolic precursor, dimethylsulfonium (DMSP), in water and particulate samples obtained along transects through Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay and Florida's Ochlockonee Bay. Observed positive correlations between the concentrations of the biogenic sulfur species and salinity, particularly when the concentrations of the sulfur compounds were normalized to chlorophyll a as a measure of phytoplankton biomass. In contrast the sharp increases in chlorophyll a-normalized biogenic sulfur concentrations from the estuarine to the coastal and shelf environments were most strongly correlated with differences in the species composition of the phytoplankton community between environments, and appear to reflect differences in DMSP production between oceanic, coccolithophore-dominated communities and estuarine, diatom-dominated communities.


Item #d89jul54

"Processes Involved in Formation and Emission of Methane in Rice Paddies," H. Schütz (Fraunhofer Inst. für Atmos. Umweltforschung, Kreuzeckbahnstr. 19, D-8100 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, FRG), W. Seiler, R. Conrad, Biogeochem., 7(1), 35-53, Jan. 1989.

The seasonal change of the rates of production and emission of methane were determined under in-situ conditions in an Italian rice paddy in 1985 and 1986. Both production and emission of CH4 increased during the season and reached a maximum in August. However, the numbers of methanogenic bacteria did not change. As the rice plants grew and the contribution of plant-mediated CH4 emission increased, the percentage of the produced CH4 which was reoxidized and thus was not emitted, also increased.


Item #d89jul55

"Effect of Volcanic Eruptions on the Gas Composition of the Atmosphere," S.G. Zvenigorodskii (Leningrad Geol. Inst., USSR), S.P. Smyshlyaev, Meteorol. Gidrol., No. 3, 119-123, 1988 (English trans. from Russian, Sov. Meteorol. Hydrol., No. 3, 1988).

Discusses possible mechanisms of the action of volcanic aerosol clouds on concentrations of minor gases in the stratosphere. Based on a one-dimensional photochemical model of the atmosphere, numerical experiments were carried out to study the effect of heterogeneous reactions at the surface of aerosol particles of different chemical composition on the balance of ozone and ozone active components. Shows that the heterogeneous flow of OH radicals at the surface of sulfate aerosol may be the cause of the generation of local minimums in vertical profiles of ozone concentration in zones of localization of volcanic aerosol clouds.

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