February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1989
GLOBAL C AND CO2 BUDGETS
"Seasonal Sources and Sinks of Atmospheric CO2--Direct
Inversion of Filtered Data," I.G. Enting (CSIRO Div. Atmos. Res., Private
Bag 1, Mordialloc, Victoria 3195, Australia), J.V. Mansbridge, Tellus,
41B(2), 111-126, Apr. 1989.
Uses a two-dimensional atmospheric transport model with transport fields
derived from a general circulation model to perform the inverse calculation of
determining surface CO2 sources from surface concentration data. The
distribution of sources and sinks is consistent with recent results concerning
oceanic uptake of CO2. Results show an additional Northern Hemisphere sink that
is interpreted as additional biotic growth, and a seasonal tropical source that
may represent seasonal burning of cleared biomass.
"Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Ratios of Carbon Dioxide of a
Stratospheric Profile over Japan," T. Gamo (Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo,
Minamidai, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164, Japan), M. Tsutsumi et al., ibid.,
Four stratospheric air samples from 19 to 25 km altitudes were collected by
a balloon-borne cryogenic sampling system to measure the vertical profiles of
carbon and oxygen stable isotopic ratios of lower stratospheric CO2. The delta
13C value of the stratospheric CO2 increased with increasing altitude, while the
CO2 mixing ratios decreased, consistent with anthropogenic input of isotopically
light, fuel-derived CO2 into the atmosphere. The delta 18O of the stratospheric
CO2 was found to be about 2% greater than that of the tropospheric CO2 at an
altitude of 19 km and to increase further with increasing altitude. Discusses
two possibilities that explain this phenomenon.
"Rapid Response of Tree Cellulose Radiocarbon Content to
Changes in Atmospheric 14CO2 Concentration," P.M. Grootes (Dept. Phys.,
Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), G.W. Farwell et al., ibid.,
To determine how quickly changes in atmospheric CO2 composition are
incorporated in stem cellulose, detailed 14C measurements were made in Sitka
spruce of the United States Pacific coast in growth rings for the years
1962-1964. This followed a large rapid increase in atmospheric 14CO2, caused by
the nuclear weapons tests of 1963, that acted as a global tracer. The tree
cellulose 14C closely followed atmospheric 14CO2 concentrations, responding to
changes with an apparent delay of 5 to 6 weeks.
"Latitudinal Distribution of the Sources and Sinks of
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Derived from Surface Observations and an Atmospheric
Transport Model," P.P. Tans (Coop. Inst. Res. Environ. Sci., Univ.
Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), T.J. Conway, T. Nakazawa, J. Geophys. Res.,
94(D4), 5151-5172, Apr. 20, 1989.
The extensive sets of global CO2 measurements of the NOAA Geophysical
Monitoring for Climatic Change division and the Upper Atmosphere and Space
Research Laboratory of Tohoku University were combined with a two-dimensional
transport model, to derive an inverse calculation of the latitudinal and
seasonal sources and sinks of CO2 necessary to reproduce the observed
concentrations. Found that the southern oceans were a sink and the equatorial
areas were a source, with significant seasonality in the sources and sinks.
Evidence suggests that longitudinal variability of the data was large enough
that a three-dimensional transport model is necessary to calculate a credible
"Coagulation on Bubbles Allows Microbial Respiration of Oceanic
Dissolved Organic Carbon," P.E. Kepkay, B.D. Johnson (Dept. Oceanog.,
Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1, Can.), Nature, 338(6210),
63-65, Mar. 2, 1989.
Study shows for the first time that the coagulation of colloidal dissolved
organic carbon (DOC) on bubble surfaces initiates the rapid microbial
respiration of carbon which would otherwise be less accessible to the biota.
This coupling of respiration to surface coagulation as a physical means of
regenerating a substantial fraction (5-15%) of oceanic DOC could be a key factor
in the mechanism required to recycle a recalcitrant reservoir of carbon back to
Letter on "Boreal Forests and the Global Carbon Cycle,"
Science, 243(4898), 1535-1536, Mar. 24, 1989.
"CO2 Storage and Alkalinity Trends in Lakes," A. Lerman
(Dept. Geol. Sci., Northwestern Univ., Evanston IL 60208), W. Stumm, Wat.
Res., 23(2), 139-146, Feb. 1989.
Examines the potential of fresh-water lakes to act as sinks for the excess
of atmospheric CO2 produced by fossil fuel burning. Establishes that greater
transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to lakes can be driven by an increase in
lake-water alkalinity. Higher alkalinity values can be attained through
biological productivity, carbonate-mineral dissolution, reduction reactions in
water and sediments, or input of chemical bases. The present near-annual
increment of atmospheric CO2 (2x1014 mole C yr-1) could be taken up by a mean
net primary productivity of approximately 850 mg C m-2 yr-1, a value that is
typical of eutrophic and tropical lakes.
"A High-Temperature Catalytic Oxidation Method for the
Determination of Non-Volatile Dissolved Organic Carbon in Seawater by Direct
Injection of a Liquid Sample," Y. Sugimura (Geochem. Lab., Meteor. Res.
Inst., Nagamine 1-1, Yatabe, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), Y. Suzuki, Marine
Chem., 24(2), 105-131, June 1988.
Describes a method for the rapid, precise determination of non-volatile
dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in seawater in concentrations between 0 and 2000
micro M. Results reveal that the concentration of DOC in surface water is about
300 micro M and decreases with depth, which is a much higher value than those
obtained previously. Concludes that previous methods obtained low concentrations
because of improper sample handling and the incomplete oxidation of the
high-polymer organic matter dissolved in seawater.
"High Precision Measurements of Alkalinity and Total Carbon
Dioxide in Seawater by Potentiometric Titration. 2. Measurements on Standard
Solution," A.L. Bradshaw (Woods Hole Oceanog. Inst., Woods Hole MA 02543),
P.G. Brewer, ibid., 155-162.
Shows that both titrimetric and gas extraction procedures yielded virtually
identical results of 2140.5 + or - 2.7 micro m CO2 kg-1 for standard solutions
identical to those of Hansson. Earlier measurements on natural seawater yielded
discrepancies of 21 micro m CO2 kg-1. Results reported here confirm authors
hypothesis of organic acids present in sea water that masquerade as CO2 in the
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