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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d89jun47

"Growth Response of Carrot and Radish to Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment," S.B. Idso (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040), B.A. Kimball, Environ. Exper. Bot., 29(2), 135-139, Apr. 1989.

Seven crops of carrots and 11 crops of radishes were grown from seed in open-top, clear-plastic-wall, CO2-enrichment chambers throughout the entire year at Phoenix, Arizona. Cumulative dry matter production at weekly intervals was significantly increased by a 300 ppm increase in the CO2 content of the air at all temperatures encountered, but with progressively greater effects being registered at higher and higher temperatures.

Item #d89jun48

"Leaf Ultrastructure, Carbohydrates and Protein of Soybeans Grown Under CO2 Enrichment," J.C.V. Vu (Horticult. Res. Lab., USDA-ARS, 2120 Camden Rd., Orlando FL 32803), L.H. Allen Jr., G. Bowes, ibid., 141-147.

Soybeans grown under 800 micro L CO2 per liter showed increases of 37, 205, 108, 33, 22 and 31% in specific leaf weight, starch, sucrose, reducing sugars, chlorophyll and soluble protein, respectively, over control plants at 330 micro L CO2 per liter. The increase in starch storage sites, together with the maintenance of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity, enable soybeans to continue to exhibit high photosynthetic rates throughout the growth period under high CO2 levels.

Item #d89jun49

"Growth Dynamics and Water Use of Seedlings of Quercus alba L. in CO2-Enriched Atmospheres," R.J. Norby (Environ. Sci. Div., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., POB 2008, Oak Ridge TN 37831), E.G. O'Neill, New Phytol., 111(3), 491-500, Mar. 1989.

White oak seedlings were grown from a half-sib collection of acorns in pots containing a nutrient-poor forest soil and maintained in controlled-environment chambers having mean atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 389, 496 and 793 cm3 m-3. CO2 enrichment increased plant growth rate primarily through increased unit leaf rate rather than increased leaf area production. The most pronounced effect of CO2 enrichment was increased whole plant water-use efficiency which showed increases of 52% to 82% at progressively higher concentrations of CO2. Limitations of resources, including water and nutrients, did not preclude plant growth response to CO2 enrichment of the atmosphere.

Item #d89jun50

"Effects of Drought and CO2 Enrichment on Competition Between Two Old-Field Perennials," S. Marks (Biol. Dept., Indiana Univ., Bloomington IN 47405), B.R. Strain, ibid., 111(2), 181-186, Feb. 1989.

Studied the effects of drought stress and CO2 enrichment on the competition between Aster pilosus (aster, C3) and Andropogon virginicus L. (broomsedge, C4) under two CO2 concentrations (350 and 650 micro L L-1 ) and two water treatments (well watered and water-limited). With CO2 enrichment, aster was a stronger competitor than broomsedge and accounted for 75% of aboveground pot biomass in both water treatments. CO2 enrichment also increased aster survival when competing with broomsedge under extreme drought conditions.

Item #d89jun51

"Growth and Senescence in Plant Communities Exposed to Elevated CO2 Concentrations on an Estuarine Marsh," P.S. Curtis (Sch. Natural Resour., Ohio State Univ., Columbus OH 43210), B.G. Drake et al., Oecologia, 78(1), 20-26, 1989.

Three high marsh communities on the Chesapeake Bay, containing monospecific populations of C3 and C4 species and these same species in combination were exposed to a doubling in ambient CO2 concentration for one growing season. Elevated CO2 resulted in increased shoot densities and delayed senescence in the C3 species. There was no effect on C4 species. Results demonstrate that elevated atmospheric CO2 can cause increased aboveground production in a mature, unmanaged ecosystem.

Item #d89jun52

"Effect of CO2 Enrichment and Nitrogen Availability on Resource Acquisition and Resource Allocation in a Grass, Bromus mollis," A. Larigauderie, D.W. Hilbert (Sys. Ecol. Res., San Diego State Univ., San Diego CA 92182), W.C. Oechel, ibid., 77(4), 544-549, 1989.

In a laboratory study, the effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth, biomass partitioning, photosynthetic rates and leaf nitrogen concentration of the grass were examined at a favorable and a low level of N availability. Low N treatment resulted in lower photosynthetic rates. CO2 enrichment stimulated vegetative growth at both high and low N during most of the vegetative growth. CO2 also tended to stimulate seed production at high N and decrease it at low N.

Item #d89jun53

"Phosphorus Stress Effects on Growth and Seed Yield Responses of Nonnodulated Soybean to Elevated Carbon Dioxide," J.D. Cure (Dept. Bot., Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706), T.W. Rufty Jr., D.W. Israel, Agron. J., 80, 897-902, Nov.-Dec. 1988.

Examined the effect of a wide range of P availabilities on plant response to enriched atmospheric CO2. Growth and seed yield were maximized at the 0.25 and 0.50 mM P concentrations at 350 and 700 micro L L-1 , respectively. Growth and yield were significantly increased at all except the lowest P concentration. Results indicate that CO2 enrichment can result in stimulation of growth and yield even at concentrations of P that limit plant growth at ambient CO2 concentrations.

Item #d89jun54

"The Response of Plants to Elevated CO2--V. Performance of an Assemblage of Serpentine Grassland Herbs," W.E. Williams (Biol. Dept., Trinity Coll., Hartford CT 06106), K. Garbutt, F.A. Bazzaz, Environ. Exper. Bot., 28(2), 123-130, 1988.

Six species of herbs from the serpentine grassland in Stanford, California, were grown individually and in competitive arrays under three levels of CO2: 350, 500 and 700 micro L/L. CO2 affected the biomass of some species in the individually-grown plants but none in the competitive arrays. Results suggest that in this community, competitive networks and adaptations to a low-resource habitat may strongly damp the effects of CO2.

Item #d89jun55

"Long-Term Elevation of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and the Carbon Exchange Rates of Saplings of Pinus taeda L. and Liquidambar styraciflua L.," N. Fletcher (Dept. Biol., Univ. Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras PR 00931), C.H. Jaeger et al., Tree Physiol., 4(3), 255-262, Sep. 1988.

The carbon exchange rate (CER) was measured in leaves of Liquidambar styraciflua L. (sweetgum) and Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) grown from seed for more than 14 months at atmospheric CO2 concentrations of either 350 or 500 micro L L-1. The net effect of a long-term increase in CO2 concentration from 350 to 500 micro L L-1 was an increase in CER of loblolly pine, but a slight decrease in CER of sweetgum. It is suggested that the depression of CER in sweetgum resulted from a reduction in the activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase.

Item #d89jun56

"C4 Plants as Valuable Model Experimental Systems for the Study of Photosynthesis," R.T. Furbank (Div. Plant Indus., CSIRO, Canberra, Aus.), C.H. Foyer, New Phytol., 109(3), 265-277, July 1988.

A review of two decades of literature on the C4 cycle.

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