February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1989
OF GENERAL INTEREST
"Environmental Impact Statements and Climate Change," G.T.
Prickett (Nat. Resour. Defense Council, 1350 New York Ave., NW, S. 300,
Washington DC 20005), D.A. Wirth, Environ., 31(2), 44-45, Mar.
A commentary suggesting that the Bush Administration should reverse a Reagan
Administration decision against consideration of global climate change by
federal agencies in the preparation of environmental impact statements, under
the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Authors maintain that government
agencies must consider these impacts in planning for energy programs,
transportation programs, public land management, coastal development,
agricultural support programs and water resource management.
"Sensitivity of Tropospheric Oxidants to Global Chemical and
Climate Change," A.M. Thompson (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Ctr., Code 616,
Greenbelt MD 20771), R.W. Stewart et al., Atmos. Environ., 23(3),
A photochemical model has been used to quantify the sensitivity of the
tropospheric oxidants O3 and OH to changes in CH4, CO and NO emissions and to
perturbations in climate and stratospheric chemistry, for a number of "chemically
coherent" regions (nonpolluted continental, nonpolluted marine, urban,
etc.). Authors conclude that in most regions, NO, CO and CH4 emission increases
will suppress OH and increase O3, but these trends may be opposed by
stratospheric O3 depletion and climate change. A recent survey of OH and O3
levels suggests that the tropics have a pivotal role in determining the earth's
future oxidizing capacity.
"Influence of Long-Range Transport of Combustion Emissions on
the Chemical Variability of the Background Atmosphere," H. Levy II
(Geophys. Fluid Dynamics Lab./NOAA, Princeton Univ., POB 308, Princeton NJ
08542), W.J. Moxim, Nature, 338(6213), 326-328, Mar. 23, 1989.
Recent measurements of soluble nitrogen (principally HNO3) at the Mauna Loa
Observatory show mixing ratios rising from their expected background values of
0.02-0.03 ppbv in the winter to 0.07-0.12 ppbv in late summer with three-hour
events as high as 0.25 ppbv. A general circulation model shows that United
States emissions are responsible for the late summer increase and Asian
emissions cause a smaller increase in the spring, indicating frequent
contamination of the Mauna Loa Observatory by the long-range transport of
reactive trace gases. Results suggest a highly variable background atmosphere
which should be considered when determining anthropogenic effects on the
"The Greenhouse Effect and Biological Diversity," A.
Dobson (Dept. Biol., Univ. Rochester, Rochester NY 14627), A. Jolly, D.
Rubenstein, Trends Ecol. Evolution, 4(3), 64-68, Mar. 1989.
Reports presentations made at the October 1988 World Wildlife Fund
Conference held in Washington, D.C. Discusses effects of climate change in
terrestrial and aquatic environments and reviews research and policy needs.
"Global Warming and Rising Sea Levels: The Policy Implications,"
G.P. Hekstra (Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning & Environ., POB
450, 2260 MB Leidschendam, Neth.), Ecologist, 19(1), 4-13,
Presents scenarios for sea level rises of 0.5 meter and 1.0 meter over the
next century. Cautions that global averages may mask substantial variability
among different coastal regions as well as effects of storm surges, which in
certain locations can magnify the damage caused by rising sea levels to human
settlements, cropland and the integrity of ground waters. Discusses the impact
of sea level rise on society, and ways of limiting greenhouse gas emissions and
sea level rise and of strengthening the biosphere.
"Nuclear Power--A Victim of Greenhouse Warming?" P.
Hatchwell, ibid., 14.
The majority of Britain's nuclear reactors are at risk from sea level rises.
Suggests that the risks to the reactor from flooding and damage from surges and
saline groundwater intrusion will increase considerably.
"Tropical Deforestation and Climatic Change," N. Myers
(Environ. & Develop. Consultant, Upper Meadow, Old Rd., Headington, Oxford
OX3 8SZ, UK), Environ. Conserv., 15(4), 293-297, Winter 1988.
Reviews tropical deforestation rates and local, regional and global impacts.
Assesses the consequences on agriculture, energy and human settlements.
Appraises policy responses to date, but suggests that choices should be based on
the results of more scientific research.
"The United States Department of Energy and the People's
Republic of China's Chinese Academy of Sciences Joint Research on the Greenhouse
Effect," F.A. Koomanoff (Dept. Energy, Off. Energy Res., Washington DC
20545), Y. Duzheng et al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 69(11),
1301-1308, Nov. 1988.
Reviews the program resulting from an agreement signed in August 1987
intended to 1) analyze general circulation models, 2) prepare and analyze proxy
and instrumental data, 3) study the relationship between large and regional
scale climates and 4) measure CH4. Describes the program structure, technical
tasks and progress to date. Notes that the efforts of scientists in both
countries have been accelerated and results of the research will continue to be
presented in the open literature.
"The CO2 Greenhouse Effect on Mars, Earth, and Venus,"
S.B. Idso (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040), Sci.
Total Environ., 77(2/3), 291-294, 1988.
Presents a comparative analysis of the mean surface air temperatures,
atmospheric pressures and composition on Mars, Venus and Earth. Suggests that
the greenhouse warming due to a 300-600 ppm doubling of the CO2 concentrations
on the earth should be only about 0.4? C. Maintains that the National
Research Council committees have overestimated the strength of the greenhouse
effect on our planet by almost a full order of magnitude.
"Soviet-American Conference on Investigation of the
Stratospheric Ozone Layer (Moscow, February 4-6, 1987)," G.A. Kokin, V.U.
Khattatov, V.V. Filyushkin, Izvestiya, Atmos. and Oceanic Phys.,
930-933, June 1988 (English trans. from Russian, 23(11), 1987).
The Soviet-American conference presented reports in the following fields: 1)
measurements of ozone and other minor gas components (MGCs) and evaluation of
trends in their concentrations based on empirical data; 2) photochemical models
and theoretical evaluations of trends in MGCs and the transport dynamics of
ozone and MGCs; 3) monitoring of the ozonosphere and 4) an aggregate evaluation
of the consequences of changes in the ozonosphere.
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Index of Abbreviations