February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 5, MAY 1989
ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND OZONE MEASUREMENT
"Errors in Grab Sample Measurements of N2O from Combustion
Sources," L.J. Muzio (Fossil Energy Res. Corp., 23342C South Pointe, Laguna
Hills CA 92653), M.E. Teague et al., JAPCA, 39(3), 287-293, Mar.
Discovered that storing combustion products containing SO2, NOx and water
for periods as short as two hours can lead to the formation of several hundred
parts per million of N2O where none originally existed. Questions the validity
of the existing data base of N2O emissions from fossil fuel systems obtained
from grab sampling techniques, and the role of combustion as a major
anthropogenic source of atmospheric N2O.
"Meridional and Vertical CO and CH4 Distributions in the
Background Troposphere (70° N-60° S; 0-12 km Altitude) from Scientific
Aircraft Measurements during the Stratoz III Experiment (June 1984)," A.
Marenco (Lab. d'Aerologie (CNRS-LA 354), Univ. Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse
Cedex, France), M. Macaigne, S. Prieur, Atmos. Environ., 23(1),
Preliminary results show that the CO and CH4 mixing ratios are higher in the
Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern, which reflects the meridional
distribution of their sources and the influence of tropospheric chemistry. A
prominent CO difference between the two hemispheres is observed in the
continental air (NH: 100-200 ppb; SH: 80-90 ppb) while the oceanic air is much
more homogeneous (NH: 80-90 ppb; SH: 60-70 ppb). In the case of CH4, a regular
decrease is observed between the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and
those of the Southern. The CH4 results suggest the possible existence of natural
sources in the Southern Hemisphere. There is also evidence in the SH that CH4 is
increasing at the rate of 1.2 + or - 0.3 % per year.
"Meridional and Vertical Ozone Distribution in the Background
Troposphere (70° N-60° S; 0-12 km Altitude) from Scientific Aircraft
Measurements during the Stratoz III Experiment (June 1984)," A. Marenco
(address immed. above), F. Said, ibid., 201-214.
Initial results indicate significantly higher stratospheric and tropospheric
O3 contents in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern. The data indicate
an important photochemical formation of tropospheric O3 at this time of year,
resulting from the anthropogenic pollution of industrialized areas.
"Evaluation of an Improved Set of Predictors for Derivation of
Total Ozone from TOVS Measurements," J.H. Lienesch (NESDIS, NOAA,
Washington, D.C.), J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 5(5), 625-630,
Evaluates three improvements to the operational regression procedures used
at NOAA/NESDIS to derive total ozone. Found that the following improved the
accuracy of ozone determination: 1) an additional predictor, 2) substitution of
one stratospheric channel for another, and 3) the deletion of isothermal cases
from the dependent data sets used to derive regression coefficients.
"Retrieving of Vertical Ozone Distribution on the Circulation
Effect by Statistical Approach," A.D. Frolov, I.V. Rozenberg, E.V.
Dorofeev, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Atmos. Okeana, 24(10),
1049-1057, Oct. 1988. In Russian.
Develops an inference method for vertical ozone profiles from Dobson ozone
spectrophotometer Umkehr observations. Achieves optimization of the calculation
procedure on the basis of optical measurement computer simulations. Compares
results of retrieved profiles with ozone-probe data from two American stations.
"The Chemistry of the Stratosphere," B.A. Thrush (Dept. Chem.,
Cambridge Univ., Cambridge, UK), Rep. Prog. Phys. (UK), 51(10),
1341-1371, Oct. 1988.
Considers sources, sinks and interconversion reactions that control the
concentrations of trace species in stratospheric chemistry. Discusses the
measurement of trace species in the stratosphere as a test of our understanding
of atmospheric chemistry and the ozone hole.
"Zeeman Modulation Contrasted with Pressure Modulation in Its Use in
Measuring Atmospheric NO from the Ground," R.L. McKenzie (Dept. Atmos.
Phys., Oxford Univ., Oxford, UK), H.K. Roscoe, Appl. Opt., 27(19),
3988-3993, Oct. 1988.
Found that PMR is better suited than ZMR for measuring NO from the ground.
The vertical resolution is 10 km between 10 and 25 km and PMR can measure the
total column above 25 km. This is useful in the Antarctic because 10-25 km is
the altitude region at which the ozone disappears in the spring.
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