February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 1989
Energy and the Environment--A General Position Paper, 47
pp., July 1989. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1825 K St. NW, S. 218,
Washington DC 20006 (202-785-3756); $3.
Addresses a dozen areas including the greenhouse effect, renewable energy
systems, fossil fuels, nuclear power, fuel cells, hydrogen energy systems,
alcohols, efficiency and acidic deposition. The greenhouse section recommends: a
gradual reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by substituting alternative energy
sources; consideration of an international convention on reforestation; an
international fund to maintain tropical rain forests, possibly using approaches
similar to those for conserving agricultural soils in the United States; and a
significant national effort by all segments of society to plant more trees in
urban and rural areas.
State of the Art: Drivepower, A.B. Lovins, J. Neymark et
al., 420 pp., April 1989. Issued as part of the Competitek information
service of the Rocky Mountain Institute (1739 Snowmass Creek Rd., Snowmass CO
One of a series of annually updated reports issued by Competitek, a
project which provides technical, economic and policy information on energy
applications and efficiency for businesses, government and public interest
groups. In addition to drivepower, other topics covered are lighting,
appliances, water and space heating, and air conditioning.
Electric motors use more than half of all electricity. This analysis
critically reviews data on drivepower usage, on costs and performance of the
best available equipment and on practices for increasing performance. It
concludes that there is an overall technical potential for saving 44 + or - 16%
of all electricity now used in U.S. drivesystems, at a per kilowatt-hour cost
equal to a small fraction of the operating costs alone of a fossil-fueled or
nuclear power plant. The potential savings are about six times greater than
traditionally reported because of several factors unique to this analysis.
Policy Options for Adaptation to Climate Change (Discussion
Paper ENR 89-05), N.J. Rosenberg, P. Crosson et al., 45 pp., Mar. 1989. Order
from Pub. & Commun., Resources for the Future, 1616 P St. NW, Washington DC
This is Chapter 8 of the recent report commissioned by UNEP, The Full
Range of Responses to Anticipated Climatic Change (see Global Climate
Change Digest, REPORTS/GENERAL, July 1989). Some of the recommendations are:
discourage heavy investment in coastal areas; combine increased reliance on
imports with investment in new technologies and management practices in
countries whose agriculture is affected negatively by change; discourage
deforestation and reliance on fossil fuels; encourage greater efficiency and
flexibility in water management.
Ethanol Fuel and Global Warming (89-164 SPR), M. Segal, 18
pp., Mar. 1989. Congr. Res. Svc., Library of Congress, Washington DC 20540
Presents calculations to compare the CO2 emissions from the gasohol blend of
ethanol and gasoline to those of gasoline alone, based on results of a 1988
Department of Energy report (that is included in an appendix), CO2 Emissions
from Production and Combustion of Fuel Ethanol from Corn. Assuming the CO2
emitted from burning ethanol is removed by photosynthesis in the next corn crop
used to produce more ethanol, results show that the use of gasohol would reduce
CO2 emissions by 4.2% compared with gasoline, on an energy content basis.
A Preliminary Analysis of U.S. CO2 Emissions Reduction from
Energy Conservation and the Substitution of Natural Gas for Coal in the Period
to 2010 (DOE/NBB-0085), J.A. Edmonds (Battelle-Pacific Northwest Labs.,
Richland, Wash.), W.B. Ashton et al., 55 pp., Feb. 1989. For U.S. Dept. Energy,
Carbon Dioxide Res. Div.; for sale through NTIS (Natl. Tech. Info. Serv.), 5285
Port Royal Rd., Springfield VA 22161; 703-487-4650.
Finds it would not be technically feasible to substantially reduce U.S. CO2
emissions during the first one or two decades of the next century, if oil and
coal use continues at current rates or grows substantially, as indicated in DOE
forecasts. Reduction of CO2 emissions by up to 40% in the period to 2020 would
be feasible, but this would require sustained reduction of energy use and
development and widespread application of CO2 removal technologies. To meet a
10% emission reduction under previous DOE coal and gas consumption forecasts for
2010, even with intensive CO2 removal, all oil consumption would have to be
eliminated, and coal use would have to decline markedly. Use of natural gas can
help achieve reductions, but 1985 emission levels would return by 2010 even if
all fossil fuel consumption were in this form. Unless similar emission reduction
strategies are adopted internationally, global emissions would continue to grow
even with a vigorous U.S. program in place.
Hydrogen--National Mission for Canada, 66 pp., 1987.
Prepared by the Advisory Group on Hydrogen Opportunities for Ministry of Energy,
Mines & Resources (Rm. 5015, 344 Wellington St., Ottawa, Ont. K1A 0E4, Can.;
613-996-8729). No charge.
Argues that Canada is well-placed to excel in development of hydrogen
technologies, the benefits of which include reduced environmental pollution and
greater efficiency, because it meets several criteria. These include large
reserves of hydrogen-deficient hydrocarbons such as heavy oils (which require
hydrogen to produce gasoline and other products); abundant reserves of natural
gas, currently the primary source of hydrogen; an ability to generate
electricity from non-fossil sources; and a domestic electrolysis industry,
necessary to make hydrogen from water.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations