February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1989
OF GENERAL INTEREST
"Stratospheric Clouds and Ozone Depletion in the Arctic during
January 1989," D.J. Hofmann (Dept. Phys. & Astron., Univ. Wyoming,
Laramie WY 82071), T.L. Deshler et al., Nature, 340(6229),
117-121, July 13, 1989.
Stratospheric clouds, believed necessary for springtime ozone depletion to
occur, were detected by balloon-borne instruments at Kiruna, Sweden, during the
coldest January in at least 25 years. Comparison of the ozone profile with those
taken recently in the Antarctic suggest the beginning of ozone depletion in the
22-26 km range.
"The Abrupt Termination of the Younger Dryas Climate Event,"
W. Dansgaard (Geophys. Inst., Univ. Copenhagen, Haraldsgade 6, DK-2200
Copenhagen N, Denmark), J.W.C. White, S.J. Johnsen, Nature, 339(6225),
532-534, June 15, 1989.
Presents detailed heavy-isotope and dust concentration profiles, which
suggest that the Younger Dryas cold period ended in less than 20 years, and the
climate in the North Atlantic region turned into a milder and less stormy regime
as a consequence of a rapid retreat of the sea-ice cover. A warming of 7° C
in South Greenland occurred in about 50 years.
"Major Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: A Critical Evaluation,"
C.F. Mass (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), D.A. Portman,
J. Clim., 2(6), 566-593, June 1989.
Examines whether major volcanic eruptions of the past century have had a
significant impact on surface land and ocean temperatures, surface pressure and
precipitation, by analyzing multi-eruption composites and individual time series
while attempting to remove the effect of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation
(ENSO). Only the largest eruptions (in terms of stratospheric dust cloud) are
suggested in the climatic record; removing the ENSO signal enhances their
"The 1988 Antarctic Ozone Depletion: Comparison with Previous
Year Depletions," M.R. Schoeberl (NASA/GSFC, Code 616, Greenbelt MD 20771),
R.S. Stolarski et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 16(5), 377-380, May
Data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) shows the 1988 spring
Antarctic ozone hole to have been much weaker than in previous years. Very high
ozone values recorded at mid-latitudes were associated with a substantial
increase in eddy activity in the band 30° -60° S. Mechanisms through
which the increased eddy activity could disrupt the formation of the ozone hole
"Formation of the 1988 Antarctic Ozone Hole," A.J. Krueger
(address immed. above), R.S. Stolarski, M.R. Schoeberl, ibid., 381-384.
The 1988 ozone hole, as observed by TOMS, formed in August but failed to
deepen significantly during September. While the 1987 hole was symmetrical about
the pole, a persistent, strong wavenumber one pattern displaced the 1988 ozone
minimum to the base of the Antarctic Peninsula, and a series of transient
mesoscale-size minima formed within the broader polar minimum. These diminished
in September and a larger scale decrease set in for two weeks, resulting in only
one-quarter the decline observed in 1987. The hole drifted off the continent in
late October and dissipated in mid-November.
"The `Greenhouse' Effect and Climate Change," J.F.B.
Mitchell (Meteor. Off., Met O1 20, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SZ, UK), Rev.
Geophys., 21(1), 115-139, Feb. 1989.
Outlines the physical basis of the projected changes in climate due to
enhancing the greenhouse effect and identifies the main areas of uncertainty.
Priorities for future research include developing an improved representation of
clouds in numerical models, obtaining a better understanding of vertical mixing
in the deep ocean, and determining the inherent variability of the
Chinese Publications: The following titles were submitted by Zhou
Fengqi of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, an editorial board member for Global
Climate Change Digest. Contact him regarding these publications and for
further information on global climate change research in China (Energy Res.
Inst., Chinese Academy Sci., Bldg. 917, Andingmenwai, Beijing, PRC).
"The Greenhouse Gases," World Environ., No. 1, 16-19,
1988. Reviews the scientific basis for the expectation that surface temperature
will rise 1.5° C-4.5° C by the year 2030 because of increasing
greenhouse gas concentrations. Shows why it is important for all countries to
control greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere.
"Changes in Atmospheric Ozone and Its Environmental Impact," ibid.,
24-27. The latest scientific findings indicate that, if production of CFCs
continues at the present rate, the steady-state reduction in total global ozone
could be about 3% over the next 70 years. However, if the release rate of CFCs
should double the present rate, or if stratospheric chlorine reaches 15 ppbv,
there could be a 3 to 12% reduction in the ozone column.
"Effect of Greenhouse Carbon Dioxide on Atmospheric Temperature,"
"Restrictions on the Production of Freon," ibid., No. 2,
11-14. Describes properties of freon, its damage to the environment, and the
international restrictions on the production and application of Freon in the
"UNEP Tries to Control Ozone Damage," ibid., 12-20.
"Nitrous Oxide and the Greenhouse Effect," S.J. Sherman
(Dept. Anesthesiology, Univ. Washington, Sch. Medicine, Harborview Medical Ctr.,
Seattle WA 98104), B.F. Cullen, Anesthesiology, 68(5), 816-817,
A plea to minimize a medical source of N2O emissions by using low-flow
anesthetic techniques whenever feasible.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations