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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 2, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1989
STRATOSPHERIC OZONE CHEMISTRY
"Denitrification in the Antarctic Stratosphere," R.J. Salawitch
(Div. Appl. Sci., Harvard Univ., 29 Oxford St., Cambridge MA 02138), G.P. Gobbi
et al., Nature, 339(6225), June 15, 1989.
Argues that the bimodal size distribution of stratospheric size distribution
sets the stage for efficient denitrification, with nitrate particles either
falling on their own or serving as nuclei for the condensation of ice.
Denitrification can therefore occur without significant dehydration and it is
unnecessary for temperatures to drop significantly below the frost point.
SPECIAL SECTION. SAGE II Aerosol and Ozone Data Validation and
Initial Data Use, J. Geophys. Res., 94(D6), June 20, 1989.
This issue includes a series of 12 papers showing the results of experiments
conducted to validate the SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II)
data as well as describing initial SAGE II data use investigations. Listed here
are the overview paper and two specific to ozone measurement.
"SAGE II Aerosol Data Validation and Initial Data Use: An Introduction
and Overview," P.B. Russell (Earth Sys. Sci. Div., NASA Ames Res. Ctr.,
Moffett Field CA 94035), M.P. McCormick, 8335-8338. Gives a brief overview of
the validation and data use papers, emphasizing the ways in which SAGE II
validation procedures and data use possibilities differ from those for SAM II
and SAGE I.
"Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements," D.M. Cunnold (Sch.
Geophys. Sci., Georgia Inst. Technol., Atlanta GA 30332), W.P. Chu et al.,
8447-8460. Discusses the error budget of the SAGE II ozone profile measurements.
Found that the SAGE II profiles provide useful ozone information up to
approximately 60 km altitude and are more precise than the SAGE I profiles.
Suggests that SAGE II profiles, combined with revised SAGE I profiles, form an
excellent database for estimating the long-term trend in stratospheric ozone
"European Validation of SAGE II Ozone Profiles," W. Attmannspacher
(Meteor. Obser., Deutscher Wetterdienst, Albin-Schwaiger, Weg 10, 8126
Hohenpeissenberg, FRG), J. de la Noé et al., 8461-8466. Ozonesonde
profiles from several stations were compared with SAGE II profiles. Found that
the agreement is always within 10% or better between 20 and 30 km, and it
remains acceptable down to 12 km, especially when the two profile locations are
close. For higher altitudes, microwave profiles were used, and they showed an
agreement between 5 and 10% with SAGE II data between 35 and 60 km.
"Diffusion and Location of Hydrochloric Acid in Ice: Implications
for Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Ozone Depletion," E.W. Wolff (British
Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), R.
Mulvaney, K. Oates, Geophys. Res. Lett., 16(6), 487-490, June
Shows that HCl is not easily incorporated into ice crystals, but is strongly
partitioned towards the grain boundaries, and the diffusion of HCl through ice
crystals is slow. Results contradict the interpretation of earlier experiments
suggesting that if HCl is to be available for reaction on polar stratospheric
cloud particles, as required by current theories of Antarctic ozone depletion,
then it must be present in some form other than a solid solution.
"Systematic Lidar Measurements of the Stratospheric Ozone Vertical
Distribution," S. Godin (Serv. d'Aéronomie CNRS, Univ. Curie, Tour
15-14, 5 ème étage, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75230 Paris Cedex 05, France),
G. Mégie, J. Pelon, ibid., 547-550.
Lidar measurements from the Observatoire de Haute-Provence provide a unique
data base, which is used to derive the observed seasonal behavior of ozone in
various altitude ranges from 25 to 45 km, with a height resolution much higher
than previous operational systems. Comparison with Umkehr measurements performed
at the same location show a good agreement in layers 5 and 6, with unexpected
differences in the uppermost layers.
"Stratospheric Ozone Measurements with a Tunable Diode Laser
Heterodyne Spectrometer," S. Okano (Upper Atmos. and Space Res. Lab.,
Tohoku Univ., Sendai 980, Japan), M. Taguchi, H. Fukunishi, ibid.,
The vertical mixing ratio profiles of stratospheric ozone were obtained
through an inversion of the ozone absorption spectra in the 9 micron band
measured using the spectrometer with a spectral resolution of 80 MHz. Examines
the accuracy of the mixing ratio and vertical resolution. Results are compared
with data obtained by Dobson spectrometers and an ozonesonde.
"Infrared Absorption Coefficients of Gaseous Chlorine Nitrate at 296
K," E.C. Tuazon (Statewide Air Pollut. Res. Ctr., Univ. Calif., Riverside
CA 92521), T.J. Wallington, ibid., 16(4), 331-334, April 1989.
Measured peak and integrated absorption coefficients of the nu-1, nu-2, nu-3
and nu-4 fundamental bands of chlorine nitrate at resolutions of 0.13 cm-1 and
0.70 cm-1 for both pure and pressure-broadened samples at 296 K. Compars results
to previous literature data.
"Measurements of N2O Photolysis Coefficients in the Stratosphere:
Comparison with Model Calculations," D. Maric (Chem. Univ. Bonn,
Wegelerstr. 12, D-5300 Bonn 1, FRG), W. Hans, U. Schurath, J. Atmos. Chem.,
8, 19-40, Jan. 1989.
A balloon-borne actinometer has been developed to measure stratospheric N2O
photolysis coefficients, jN2O = -d ln(N2O)/dt, with a time resolution of
approximately 100 s, and a lower detection limit approaching 10-10 s-1. The
quantitative results, particularly the altitude and solar zenith angle
dependences under extreme conditions, support the low absorption cross-sections
of oxygen in the Herzberg continuum as recommended by WMO in 1986, and are
inconsistent with Ackerman's tabulations of 1971. Demonstrates that the altitude
dependence of Brewer and Wilson's historical irradiance measurements in the
stratospheric window region is well reproduced by the authors' model, but should
be multiplied by a factor of 1.75.
"Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrum of Trifluoro-Bromo-Methane,
Difluoro-Dibromo-Methane and Difluoro-Bromo-Chloro-Methane in the Vapor Phase,"
D. Gillotay (Inst. d'Aéronomie Spatiale, Ave. Circulaire, 3, B-1180
Brussels, Belgium), P.C. Simon, ibid., 41-62.
Reports a new investigation of ultraviolet absorption cross-sections of
three brominated methanes measured between 172 and 300 nm, for temperatures
between 295 and 210 K. Temperature effects are discussed and parametrical
formulae are proposed to compute the absorption cross-sections for wavelengths
and temperatures useful in atmospheric modeling calculations.
"Laboratory Spectroscopic Studies of Atmospherically Important
Radicals Using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy," P.T. Wassell (Phys. Chem.
Lab., South Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3QZ, UK), R.P. Wayne et al., ibid.,
These laboratory experiments obtained spectra for subsequent application to
remote sounding measurements in the atmosphere. Results indicate the importance
of heterogeneous processes, especially when traces of water are present, and
lend credence to suggestions that heterogeneous mechanisms in the NO3-N2O5-H2O
system might be a viable source of atmospheric HNO3.
"An Improved Method for Determining the Vertical Ozone Distribution
Using Satellite Measurements," T. Aruga (Communications Res. Lab., Ministry
Posts & Telecommunications, Koganei, Tokyo 184, Japan), D.F. Heath, J.
Geomag. Geoelectr., 40(11), 1339-1363, 1988.
Tested the improved inversion algorithm using data from NIMBUS-4
backscattered UV experiments. Results suggest that, by using this method, the
vertical distributions of atmospheric ozone can be obtained with high accuracy
over a wide range of altitudes.
"The Springtime Antarctic Ozone Depletion," M.J. Rycroft
(British Antarctic Survey, NERC, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), Q.
J. Roy. Astr. Soc., 29, 495-502, 1988.
Briefly outlines the dynamics, radiation and chemistry of the atmosphere.
Suggests that more research is required to understand the springtime Antarctic
ozone depletion in the global context. Believes more government action is needed
to ban non-essential uses of CFCs and also concentrate on other chemicals that
can harm the stratospheric ozone layer.
"Long-Term Variations of the Dynamics of the Stratosphere and the
Ozone Decrease in the Antarctic," E.A. Zhadin, E.V. Lysenko, Soviet
Meteor. Hydrol., No. 10, 136-140, 1988.
Presents experimental data on the interannual variations of temperature of
the stratosphere and mesosphere over Heiss Island and Volgograd and also on the
dynamic situation in the stratosphere of high latitudes in the transitional
season. Suggests data may serve as indirect confirmation that the cause of the
modern appearance of the ozone hole in the Antarctic consists of long-term
variations of the wave activity of the stratosphere related to temperature
anomalies of some regions of the world ocean.
"Possible Cause of Sharp Antarctic Ozone Decline in Spring,"
V.I. Bekoryukov, ibid., 133-136.
Suggests that one of the causes of the sharp decrease in ozone in the
Antarctic in spring may be the so-called disappearance of the tropopause, where
stratospheric ozone breaks through into the troposphere.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations