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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d89sep50

"Denitrification in the Antarctic Stratosphere," R.J. Salawitch (Div. Appl. Sci., Harvard Univ., 29 Oxford St., Cambridge MA 02138), G.P. Gobbi et al., Nature, 339(6225), June 15, 1989.

Argues that the bimodal size distribution of stratospheric size distribution sets the stage for efficient denitrification, with nitrate particles either falling on their own or serving as nuclei for the condensation of ice. Denitrification can therefore occur without significant dehydration and it is unnecessary for temperatures to drop significantly below the frost point.

Item #d89sep51

SPECIAL SECTION. SAGE II Aerosol and Ozone Data Validation and Initial Data Use, J. Geophys. Res., 94(D6), June 20, 1989. This issue includes a series of 12 papers showing the results of experiments conducted to validate the SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II) data as well as describing initial SAGE II data use investigations. Listed here are the overview paper and two specific to ozone measurement.

"SAGE II Aerosol Data Validation and Initial Data Use: An Introduction and Overview," P.B. Russell (Earth Sys. Sci. Div., NASA Ames Res. Ctr., Moffett Field CA 94035), M.P. McCormick, 8335-8338. Gives a brief overview of the validation and data use papers, emphasizing the ways in which SAGE II validation procedures and data use possibilities differ from those for SAM II and SAGE I.

"Validation of SAGE II Ozone Measurements," D.M. Cunnold (Sch. Geophys. Sci., Georgia Inst. Technol., Atlanta GA 30332), W.P. Chu et al., 8447-8460. Discusses the error budget of the SAGE II ozone profile measurements. Found that the SAGE II profiles provide useful ozone information up to approximately 60 km altitude and are more precise than the SAGE I profiles. Suggests that SAGE II profiles, combined with revised SAGE I profiles, form an excellent database for estimating the long-term trend in stratospheric ozone since 1979.

"European Validation of SAGE II Ozone Profiles," W. Attmannspacher (Meteor. Obser., Deutscher Wetterdienst, Albin-Schwaiger, Weg 10, 8126 Hohenpeissenberg, FRG), J. de la Noé et al., 8461-8466. Ozonesonde profiles from several stations were compared with SAGE II profiles. Found that the agreement is always within 10% or better between 20 and 30 km, and it remains acceptable down to 12 km, especially when the two profile locations are close. For higher altitudes, microwave profiles were used, and they showed an agreement between 5 and 10% with SAGE II data between 35 and 60 km.

Item #d89sep52

"Diffusion and Location of Hydrochloric Acid in Ice: Implications for Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Ozone Depletion," E.W. Wolff (British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), R. Mulvaney, K. Oates, Geophys. Res. Lett., 16(6), 487-490, June 1989.

Shows that HCl is not easily incorporated into ice crystals, but is strongly partitioned towards the grain boundaries, and the diffusion of HCl through ice crystals is slow. Results contradict the interpretation of earlier experiments suggesting that if HCl is to be available for reaction on polar stratospheric cloud particles, as required by current theories of Antarctic ozone depletion, then it must be present in some form other than a solid solution.

Item #d89sep53

"Systematic Lidar Measurements of the Stratospheric Ozone Vertical Distribution," S. Godin (Serv. d'Aéronomie CNRS, Univ. Curie, Tour 15-14, 5 ème étage, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75230 Paris Cedex 05, France), G. Mégie, J. Pelon, ibid., 547-550.

Lidar measurements from the Observatoire de Haute-Provence provide a unique data base, which is used to derive the observed seasonal behavior of ozone in various altitude ranges from 25 to 45 km, with a height resolution much higher than previous operational systems. Comparison with Umkehr measurements performed at the same location show a good agreement in layers 5 and 6, with unexpected differences in the uppermost layers.

Item #d89sep54

"Stratospheric Ozone Measurements with a Tunable Diode Laser Heterodyne Spectrometer," S. Okano (Upper Atmos. and Space Res. Lab., Tohoku Univ., Sendai 980, Japan), M. Taguchi, H. Fukunishi, ibid., 551-554.

The vertical mixing ratio profiles of stratospheric ozone were obtained through an inversion of the ozone absorption spectra in the 9 micron band measured using the spectrometer with a spectral resolution of 80 MHz. Examines the accuracy of the mixing ratio and vertical resolution. Results are compared with data obtained by Dobson spectrometers and an ozonesonde.

Item #d89sep55

"Infrared Absorption Coefficients of Gaseous Chlorine Nitrate at 296 K," E.C. Tuazon (Statewide Air Pollut. Res. Ctr., Univ. Calif., Riverside CA 92521), T.J. Wallington, ibid., 16(4), 331-334, April 1989.

Measured peak and integrated absorption coefficients of the nu-1, nu-2, nu-3 and nu-4 fundamental bands of chlorine nitrate at resolutions of 0.13 cm-1 and 0.70 cm-1 for both pure and pressure-broadened samples at 296 K. Compars results to previous literature data.

Item #d89sep56

"Measurements of N2O Photolysis Coefficients in the Stratosphere: Comparison with Model Calculations," D. Maric (Chem. Univ. Bonn, Wegelerstr. 12, D-5300 Bonn 1, FRG), W. Hans, U. Schurath, J. Atmos. Chem., 8, 19-40, Jan. 1989.

A balloon-borne actinometer has been developed to measure stratospheric N2O photolysis coefficients, jN2O = -d ln(N2O)/dt, with a time resolution of approximately 100 s, and a lower detection limit approaching 10-10 s-1. The quantitative results, particularly the altitude and solar zenith angle dependences under extreme conditions, support the low absorption cross-sections of oxygen in the Herzberg continuum as recommended by WMO in 1986, and are inconsistent with Ackerman's tabulations of 1971. Demonstrates that the altitude dependence of Brewer and Wilson's historical irradiance measurements in the stratospheric window region is well reproduced by the authors' model, but should be multiplied by a factor of 1.75.

Item #d89sep57

"Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrum of Trifluoro-Bromo-Methane, Difluoro-Dibromo-Methane and Difluoro-Bromo-Chloro-Methane in the Vapor Phase," D. Gillotay (Inst. d'Aéronomie Spatiale, Ave. Circulaire, 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium), P.C. Simon, ibid., 41-62.

Reports a new investigation of ultraviolet absorption cross-sections of three brominated methanes measured between 172 and 300 nm, for temperatures between 295 and 210 K. Temperature effects are discussed and parametrical formulae are proposed to compute the absorption cross-sections for wavelengths and temperatures useful in atmospheric modeling calculations.

Item #d89sep58

"Laboratory Spectroscopic Studies of Atmospherically Important Radicals Using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy," P.T. Wassell (Phys. Chem. Lab., South Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3QZ, UK), R.P. Wayne et al., ibid., 63-85.

These laboratory experiments obtained spectra for subsequent application to remote sounding measurements in the atmosphere. Results indicate the importance of heterogeneous processes, especially when traces of water are present, and lend credence to suggestions that heterogeneous mechanisms in the NO3-N2O5-H2O system might be a viable source of atmospheric HNO3.

Item #d89sep59

"An Improved Method for Determining the Vertical Ozone Distribution Using Satellite Measurements," T. Aruga (Communications Res. Lab., Ministry Posts & Telecommunications, Koganei, Tokyo 184, Japan), D.F. Heath, J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 40(11), 1339-1363, 1988.

Tested the improved inversion algorithm using data from NIMBUS-4 backscattered UV experiments. Results suggest that, by using this method, the vertical distributions of atmospheric ozone can be obtained with high accuracy over a wide range of altitudes.

Item #d89sep60

"The Springtime Antarctic Ozone Depletion," M.J. Rycroft (British Antarctic Survey, NERC, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), Q. J. Roy. Astr. Soc., 29, 495-502, 1988.

Briefly outlines the dynamics, radiation and chemistry of the atmosphere. Suggests that more research is required to understand the springtime Antarctic ozone depletion in the global context. Believes more government action is needed to ban non-essential uses of CFCs and also concentrate on other chemicals that can harm the stratospheric ozone layer.

Item #d89sep61

"Long-Term Variations of the Dynamics of the Stratosphere and the Ozone Decrease in the Antarctic," E.A. Zhadin, E.V. Lysenko, Soviet Meteor. Hydrol., No. 10, 136-140, 1988.

Presents experimental data on the interannual variations of temperature of the stratosphere and mesosphere over Heiss Island and Volgograd and also on the dynamic situation in the stratosphere of high latitudes in the transitional season. Suggests data may serve as indirect confirmation that the cause of the modern appearance of the ozone hole in the Antarctic consists of long-term variations of the wave activity of the stratosphere related to temperature anomalies of some regions of the world ocean.

Item #d89sep62

"Possible Cause of Sharp Antarctic Ozone Decline in Spring," V.I. Bekoryukov, ibid., 133-136.

Suggests that one of the causes of the sharp decrease in ozone in the Antarctic in spring may be the so-called disappearance of the tropopause, where stratospheric ozone breaks through into the troposphere.

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