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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d90aug19

"Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Fertilized Soils: Summary of Available Data," M.J. Eichner (Sci. & Policy Assoc. Inc., West Tower, S. 400, 1333 H St. NW, Washington DC 20005), J. Environ. Qual., 19(2), 272-280, Apr.-June 1990.

Summarizes direct measurements of fertilizer-derived N2O emissions from 104 field experiments reported in the literature, to estimate world-wide fertilizer-derived N2O emissions. There appears to be a trend between emissions and type and quantity of fertilizer applied, but not between emissions and particular soil type or agricultural system. Suggests future research needs.

Item #d90aug20

"A Simple Model for Estimating Emissions of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbons from the Combustion of Coal," C.F. Cullis (Dept. Chem., The City Univ., London EC1V 0HB, UK), M.M. Hirschler, Atmos. Environ., 24A(5), 1153-1160, 1990.

Demonstrates that a simple model can give useful information sufficiently accurate for most purposes. Results based on information on coal use in 34 countries show that CO is a much more abundant product of coal combustion than HC. For both pollutants the most important coal use sector is commercial/domestic due to the lack of effective control measures. Emissions from coal combustion are relatively unimportant compared with those from combustion of other fuels, particularly petroleum.

Item #d90aug21

"Measurements of Nitrous Oxide Emissions from P.F. Fired Power Stations," S.A. Sloan (Nat. Power, Technol. & Environ. Ctr., Kelvin Ave., Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7SE, UK), C.K. Laird, ibid., 1199-1206.

Nitrous oxide was measured in the flue gas from four wall-fired and three corner-fired 500 MW boilers, fitted with either conventional or low-NOx burners, at four C.E.G.B. power stations. Results indicate that the current estimates of the contribution of emissions from p.f. fired boilers to the global N2O budget are likely to be too high.

Item #d90aug22

"Nitrous Oxide Production in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean," C. Oudot (ORSTOM, B.P. 1386, Dakar, Sénégal), C. Andrie, Y. Montel, Deep-Sea Res., 37(2A), 183-202, Feb. 1990.

The average N2O concentration in the air was 311 + or - 6 ppb, with surface waters supersaturated at 123% to 132%. The N2O production in highly supersaturated deep waters allowed an estimate of the oceanic source of atmospheric N2O of 11.3 ml/m-2 y-1. The chemical environment (oxygen-nitrate) indicated that nitrification is the most probable process of N2O formation, but in certain cases assimilatory nitrate reduction may be an additional cause.

Item #d90aug23

"The Effects of Fire on Biogenic Emissions of Methane and Nitric Oxide From Wetlands," J.S. Levine (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA Langley Res. Ctr., Hampton VA 23665), W.R. Cofer III et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95(D2), 1853-1864, Feb. 20, 1990.

Methanogens require carbon dioxide, acetate or formate for their growth and the metabolic production of methane. All three water-soluble compounds are produced in large concentrations during biomass burning. Enhanced emissions of CH4 and NO were measured following three controlled burns in a Florida wetlands in 1987 and 1988. These measurements indicate that the combustion products of biomass burning exert an important fertilizing effect on the biosphere and on the biogenic production of environmentally significant atmospheric gases.

Item #d90aug24

"Trace Gas Emissions from Burning Florida Wetlands," W.R. Cofer III (address immed. above), J.S. Levine et al., ibid., 1865-1870.

Measurements of trace gases (CO, H2, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons and N2O) were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands. Combustion efficiency was relatively good in both cases examined. Suggests that consistently low emission ratios (trace gases compared to CO2) were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes (both small-sized fuels) burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished with the duration of smoldering combustion greatly diminished.

Item #d90aug25

"Atmospheric Chemistry--Progress and Surprises in the Past Five Years," R.A. Cox (Brit. Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), J. Photochem. Photobiol., A: Chemistry, 51(1), 29-40, Feb. 1990. Reviews recent developments in stratospheric chemistry, particularly in the areas of heterogeneous and liquid phase processes and in chlorine oxide chemistry.

Item #d90aug26

"Methanesulphonic Acid, Dimethyl Sulphoxide and Dimethyl Sulphonide in Aerosols," S.F. Watts (Sch. Biol. Molecular Sci., Oxford Polytechnic, Gypsy Lane, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK), P. Brimblecombe, A.J. Watson, Atmos. Environ., 24A(2), 353-359, 1990.

Aerosol samples collected from 1985 to 1987 from land-based stations and various shipboard stations in the North Sea and North Atlantic Ocean were analyzed in terms of their back trajectories and also time variations. Analyses suggest that NO3 and non-sea-salt sulfur are anthropogenic in origin, while DMSO2 appears to have a maritime source. MSA concentrations are highest in air masses with both oceanic and anthropogenic influences. DMSO, MSA and DMSO2 show seasonal cycles with concentrations similar to previous results.

Item #d90aug27

Balloon Intercomparison Campaigns: J. Atmos. Chem., 10, 1990. In 1982 and 1983, 21 instruments from 7 countries were assembled on four gondolas to take part in the largest balloon-borne stratospheric measurement campaign ever attempted. Results were compared from remote sensors of stratospheric minor constituents. Vertical profiles of many chemically coupled constituents were measured simultaneously. The accompanying 7 papers describe the results of these successful intercomparisons.

"The Balloon Intercomparison Campaigns: An Introduction and Overview," R.T. Watson (NASA Headquarters, Washington DC 20546), H.K. Roscoe, P.T. Woods, 99-110.

"Intercomparison of Remote Measurements of Strato-spheric NO and NO2," H.K. Roscoe (Dept. Atmos. Phys., Clarendon Lab., Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3PU, UK), B.J. Kerridge et al., 111-144.

"Stratospheric Methane Concentration Profiles Measured during the Balloon Intercomparison Campaigns," R. Zander (Inst. Astrophys., Univ. Liège, B-4200 Liège-Ougrée, Belgium), N. Louisnard, M. Bangham, 145-158.

"Intercomparison of Stratospheric Water Vapor Profiles Obtained during the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign," D. Murcray (Dept. Phys., Univ. Denver, Denver CO 80208), A. Goldman et al., 159-179.

"Ozone Measurements from the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign," D. Robbins (NASA Johnson Space Ctr., Houston TX 77058), J. Waters et al., 181-218.

"Intercomparison of Measurements of Stratospheric Hydrogen Fluoride," W.G. Mankin (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), M.T. Coffey et al., 219-236.

"Balloon Intercomparison Campaigns: Results of Remote Sensing Measurements of HCl," C.B. Farmer (Jet Propulsion Lab., Calif. Inst. Technol., Pasadena, Calif.), B. Carli et al., 237-272.

Item #d90aug28

"Methane Consumption in Two Temperate Forest Soils," J.B. Yavitt (Dept. Natural Resour., Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY 14853), D.M. Downey et al., Biogeochem., 9(1), 39-52, Jan. 1990.

14C-labeled methane was added to the headspace of intact soil cores collected from a mixed mesophytic forest and from a red spruce forest. Both soils consumed the added methane at initially high rates that decreased as the methane mixing ratio of the air decreased. Because the addition of acetylene to the headspace completely suppressed methane consumption by the soils, an aerobic methane-consuming microorganism mediating the process is suggested. Methane mixing ratios in soil air spaces were greater than in the air overlying the soil surface, indicating these soils had the ability to produce methane.

Item #d90aug29

"Emissions of Trace Gases from Chinese Rice Fields and Biogas Generators: CH4, N2O, CO, CO2, Chlorocarbons, and Hydrocarbons," M.A. Khalil (Inst. Atmos. Sci., Oregon Grad. Ctr., 19,600 N.W. Von Neumann Dr., Beaverton OR 97006), R.A. Rasmussen et al., Chemosphere, 20(1-2), 207-226, 1990.

Although global and annual CH4 emissions could not be determined, the work fulfilled other objectives. Biogas generators are not a significant global source of CH4 emissions. Although CO2 emissions are large, there is probably no net flux of CO2 to the atmosphere over a few years. Rice fields do take up some man-made chlorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons.

Item #d90aug30

"The 13C/12C Kinetic Isotope Effect for Soil Oxidation of Methane at Ambient Atmospheric Concentrations," S.L. King (Sch. Oceanog., Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), P.D. Quay, J.M. Lansdown, ibid., 94(D15), 18,273-18,277, Dec. 20, 1989.

Reports the first measurements of the carbon kinetic isotope effect for soil oxidation of methane at ambient atmospheric concentrations. Estimates agree with previous measurements from laboratory cultures of methane-oxidizing bacteria and represent one of the few instances in which laboratory measurements of biological isotope effects have been substantiated with actual field measurements. Results indicate that even if soil oxidation accounts for only 5% of the sink for atmospheric methane, the isotope effect will result in a small, but significant effect on the isotopic composition of atmospheric CH4.

Item #d90aug31

"Analysis of Sources and Sinks of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide (N2O)," R.J. Cicerone (Geosci. Dept., 220 Phys. Sci. Bldg., Univ. Calif., Irvine CA 92717), ibid., 18,265-18,271.

Uses a two-box model to test an array of assumptions using a range of values for interhemispheric exchange times and for removal times due to stratospheric destruction of N2O. Tests the common case of no uptake of atmospheric N2O by soils, and model sensitivity to two hypothesized nonzero soil sinks. Relatively small soil sinks would decrease the atmospheric residence time of N2O to values below those that are calculated from stratospheric removal alone.

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