February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1990
Montreal Protocol Speed-Up. A working group of parties to the
Montreal Protocol made significant progress on agreeing to a complete phase-out
of CFCs by the year 2000, but opinion differs on how interim reductions should
be carried out. Protocol modifications must be developed before a June 1990
meeting of signatories. For details see Intl. Environ. Rptr., pp.
585-586, Dec. 1989; Greenhouse Effect Rep., p. 100, Dec. 1989.
Timetables ranging from the years 2010 to 2060 for phasing out hydrogen-based
HCFCs, considered less damaging "bridge" substitutes by industry, were
also considered. The influence of such restrictions on development of CFC
substitutes is discussed in "Now HCFC-22 Feels the Pressure," Chem.
Week, p. 15, Dec. 6. See also "Atmospheric Scientists Assess
Hydrogen-Bearing CFC Substitutes" (Chem. Eng. News, p. 15, Oct.
23), which discusses an international evaluation being performed for the
EPA Toxicity Testing Plan. At an international conference on CFC
substitutes held in Washington in October 1989, the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency presented a draft plan for evaluating the safety and
environmental effects of alternative chemicals necessary to meet the
requirements of the Montreal Protocol. Its basic principles are that substitutes
must be tested immediately, and that EPA must continually assess the incoming
data rather than wait until all planned testing is complete. Test results are
already forthcoming from the industry-sponsored Program for Alternative
Fluorocarbon Toxicity Testing (PAFTT). Comments are welcome on the draft plan,
Strategy for the Human Health and Environmental Effects Review of CFC
Substitutes; copies are available from the EPA Toxic Substances Control Act
Office, 401 M St. NW, Washington DC 20460 (202-382-3790). See also Chem.
Eng. News, pp. 14-15, Oct. 23, 1989, and "CFC Substitutes: Candidates
Pass Early Toxicity Tests," P. Zurer, Chem. Eng. News, p. 4, Oct.
EPA-Industry Cooperative. At the same conference, nine U.S.
companies pledged to form a cooperative and work with EPA to phase out CFC use
in their international operations. The firms are AT&T, Boeing, Digital
Equipment, Ford, General Electric, Honeywell, Motorola, Northern Telecom and
Texas Instruments. The cooperative will also share information on new
alternatives with other industries world-wide, and work to encourage the
adoption of safe substitutes by small companies in developing countries. In
August, AT&T announced it would eliminate all CFC emissions from its
manufacturing processes by 1994, and three other major firms (General Electric,
General Motors and Nissan) announced moves that will substantially reduce their
Articles on the Industry
"How to Fix the CFC Mix," A. Wood, Chem. Week, p. 64, Oct.
"Urethane Makers Feel CFC Squeeze," D. Hunter, ibid., p.
8, Oct. 11.
"ICI Leaps into CFC Substitutes," C.B. MacKerron, ibid.,
"CFC Prices Go for the Sky," A. Wood, ibid., p. 14, Sep.
"CFC Displacement Revisited," K. Sternberg, ibid., p. 22,
Aug. 30. CFC users and producers, especially the automobile and electronics
industries, are finding that the costs of research, development, redesigning and
conversion of production systems will be astronomical.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations