February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1990
"Conservation and Global Warming: A Problem in Biological Adaptation
to Stress," P.A. Parsons (Dept. Zool., Univ. Adelaide, Adelaide, S.A. 5000,
Australia), Ambio, XVIII(6), 322-325, 1989.
Adaptation by plants and insects to substantial changes in desiccation
stress has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in the wild. Experimental
work in Drosophila melanogaster indicates that the cost is a reduction
in available metabolic energy in desiccation tolerant strains. Since resistance
to many stresses depends on metabolic rate, combinations of stresses including
high temperatures will be expected to be cumulative. It follows that the
potential for adaptation to temperature change will be reduced at a time
desiccation is increasing.
"Environmental and Economic Implications of Rising Sea Level and
Subsiding Deltas: The Nile and Bengal Examples," J.D. Milliman (Woods Hole
Oceanog. Inst., Woods Hole MA 02543), J.M. Broadus, F. Gable, ibid.,
By the year 2100, local sea levels at the Nile and Bangladesh deltas could
be as much as 3.3 and 4.5 meters higher, respectively, than at present; Egypt
and Bangladesh could lose 26% and 34%, respectively, of their currently
habitable land. Additional loss of shoreline by erosion, loss of mangrove
forests, and decreased agriculture and fisheries will exacerbate environmental
and economic impacts.
"The Effects of Preindustrial and Predicted Future Atmospheric CO2
Concentration on Lyonia mariana L.D. Don," D. Overdieck (Univ.
Osnabrück, Postfach 4469, D-4500 Osnabrück, FRG), Functional Ecol.,
3(5), 569-576, 1989.
CO2 net assimilation and transpiration rates were measured on the entire
above-ground parts of 7-8 month-old seedlings grown for 2-3 months at 270 and
350 micro L/L CO2, at constant climatic conditions, in growth chambers. Among
the results: the mean transpiration rate during the investigation of response to
light and CO2 was 16% lower at 350 than at 270 and 15.5% lower at 650 than at
350 micro L/L CO2.
"Analysis of Effects of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Ozone on
Cotton Yield Trends," V.R. Reddy (Dept. Agric. Eng., Clemson Univ., Clemson
SC 29631), D.N. Baker, J.M. McKinion, J. Environ. Qual., 18(4),
To analyze the effects of [CO2] and [O3] on cotton yield trends, simulations
were made using the cotton crop model GOSSYM. Data from cotton breeders' trial
sites from South Carolina, Texas, Arizona and California were used. The
simulated effects changed from site to site due to interactions with soil, plant
and atmospheric variables and with nutrient levels in the soil. Given enough N,
the increased [CO2] would probably result in a 10% increase in lint yield,
although due to N stress during the growing season the plants could not fully
utilize the increased [CO2]. It appears that O3 is one of the contributing
factors to the yield decline.
"Effects of Long-Term Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Concentration on Lolium
perenne and Trifolium repens Canopies in the Course of a Terminal
Drought Stress Period," I. Nijs (Dept. Biol., Univ. Antwerp,
Universiteitplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium), I. Impens, T. Behaeghe, Can.
J. Bot., 67(9), 2720-2725, 1989.
A terminal drought stress regime was imposed on vegetatively fully-developed
plants in semicontrolled growth chambers. Lolium perenne was more
sensitive to drought stress in its initial response and divided the available
amount of water more proportionally over the stress period than Trifolium
repens. Water-use efficiency was roughly doubled and affected later by
drought stress in high CO2 for both species. Concludes that high CO2 treatment
favors the survival of these two species when they are also exposed to severe,
rapidly developing drought stress.
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