February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1990
"An Infrared Radiative Scheme for the Numerical Models of Weather
and Climate," K. Shibata (Meteor. Res. Inst., Nagamine, Ibaraki 305,
Japan), T. Aoki, J. Geophys. Res., 94(D12), 14,923-14,943, Oct.
This method is found to be more economical in computation time than the
current Godson method with the same precision. Errors in radiative fluxes are
less than 0.8 W/m2 both at the earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere.
Accuracy does not degrade when the CO2 concentration is doubled.
"The Role of Cloud Microphysics in High-Cloud Feedback Effects on
Climate Change," C.M.R. Platt (CSIRO, Div. Atmos. Res., Station St.,
Aspendale, Vic. 3195, Australia), Nature, 341(6241), 428-429,
Oct. 5, 1989.
Looks at the temperature dependence of the infrared emittance of high clouds
using data from a ground-based lidar/radiometer and in situ aircraft
measurements of cloud properties. Concludes that the infrared emittances of high
clouds are less sensitive to changes in temperature than predicted by climate
models, chiefly because the microphysics of cirrus clouds modifies the
relationship between cloud optical depth and cloud ice/liquid water path, in
ways not accounted for in the models.
"Linking Land-Surface and Atmospheric General Circulation Models,"
S. Turner, Ambio, XVIII(6), 355, 1989.
Reports on the combined modeling workshop for the International
Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) coordinating panels 3, 4, and 5 (June 1989,
Brussels). This meeting focused on the modeling needs of the three panels
relative to terrestrial ecosystems, hydrological and atmospheric models, and
relevant field experiments necessary to augment the modeling activities.
"Modeling the Effects of Amazonian Deforestation on Regional Surface
Climate: A Review," R.E. Dickinson (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), Agric.
For. Meteor., 47(2-4), 339-347, Sep. 1989.
Recounts a first-hand impression of forest clearing in the Amazon Forest,
and challenges climate modelers to describe the consequences of this change.
Critically reviews past climate modeling studies to examine this question. An
adequate treatment of interception losses depends on a realistic description of
incident solar radiation during rainfall and of the local structure of
convective rainfall. Data from the Amazon have helped to diagnose model defects.
"Cloud Overlap Statistics," L. Tian (Dept. Meteor., Penn. State
Univ., University Park PA 16802), J.A. Curry, J. Geophys. Res., 94(D7),
9925-9935, July 20, 1989.
Uses the U.S. Air Force 3-D Nephanalysis (3DNEPH) to analyze the vertical
distribution of clouds and cloud overlap statistics during January 1979 over the
north Atlantic Ocean. Three cloud overlap assumptions were tested: maximum,
minimum and random overlap. Results indicate that, while random overlap performs
reasonably well on the average, the systematic bias (which depends on grid
resolution) and random discrepancies could result in significant errors when
this approximation is used in general circulation modeling and cloud
"The Development of a Two-Dimensional Global Tropospheric Model--1.
The Model Transport," A.M. Hough (Environ. & Med. Sci. Div., Harwell
Lab., Didcot, Oxfordshire, UK), ibid., 1235-1261.
Develops a two-dimensional meridional (pole to pole) model of the global
troposphere which uses an effective stream function and diffusion tensor, both
derived from a three-dimensional general circulation model, to describe model
transport. Model results for halocarbons and 85Kr agree well with measurements
made near the surface of the earth over a wide range of latitudes. Suggests that
model development could be extended to study global tropospheric chemical
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