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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d90jan41

"A 3-Year Continuous Record on the Influence of Daytime, Season, and Fertilizer Treatment Emission Rates From an Italian Rice Paddy," H. Schütz (Fraunhofer-Inst. Atmos. Umweltforschung, Kreuzeckbahnstr. 19, D-8100 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, FRG), A. Holzapfel-Pschorn et al., J. Geophys. Res., 94(D13), 16,405-16,416, Nov. 20, 1989.

CH4 emission rates showed strong diurnal and seasonal variations. Based on this study, and applying observed temperature dependence of the CH4 emission rates, the global annual CH4 emission from rice paddies is estimated to be in the range of 50-150 Tg, with a likely average of 100 Tg. This represents 19-25% of the global CH4 emission, making this an important source of atmospheric CH4.

Item #d90jan42

"Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Measurements at Cape Matatula, American Samoa, 1976-1987," L.S. Waterman (ARL, R/E/AR4, NOAA, Boulder CO 80303), D.W. Nelson et al., J. Geophys. Res., 94(D12), 14,817-14,829, Oct. 20, 1989.

Reports for the first time the NOAA in situ, continuous Samoa measurement results for 1976-1987. Shows an average increase in CO2 of 1.44 ppm by volume per year. This increase amounts to 61% of the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere by fossil fuel combustion during this period. Record shows no prominent seasonal cycle. The interannual variability of the CO2 growth rate correlates well with observations from other GMCC sites.

Item #d90jan43

"Tropospheric and Dissolved N2O of the West Pacific and East Indian Oceans During the El Niño Southern Oscillation Event of 1987," J.H. Butler (ARL, R/E/AR4, NOAA, Boulder CO 80303), J.W. Elkins et al., ibid., 14,865-14,877.

Examines the spatial distribution of N2O in the ocean and atmosphere over a relatively large portion of the world's oceans during the El Niño-Southern Oscillation event of 1987. Results show a latitudinally weighted, mean interhemispheric difference of 0.97 ppb, which suggests that two-thirds of the global flux of N2O into the atmosphere comes from northern hemisphere sources. Deep water N2O concentrations, which could be predicted with reasonable certainty from salinity, temperature, dissolved O2 and pressure, were highest in North Pacific waters and lowest in the higher latitudes of the South Pacific and East Indian Oceans.

Item #d90jan44

"Tropospheric Lifetimes of Halogenated Anaesthetics," A.C. Brown (Phys. Chem. Lab., Univ. Oxford, South Parks Rd., Oxford 0X1 3QZ, UK), C.E. Canosa-Mas et al., Nature, 341(6243), 635-637, Oct. 19, 1989.

The measured absolute rates of reactions of halogenated anaesthetics with OH were compared to a one-dimensional model, and the lifetimes of halothane, enflurane and isoflurane were determined to be 2, 6, and 5 years, respectively. These anaesthetics will contribute, at most, a fraction of about 5x10-4 to the total atmospheric content of chlorine-containing species.

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