February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 7, JULY 1990
EFFECTS OF CO2 ON VEGETATION
"Worldwide Environmental Productivity Indices and Yield Predictions
for a CAM Plant, Opuntia ficus-indica, Including Effects of Doubled CO2
Levels," V.G. De Cortázar (Dept. Ingenieria Suelos, Fac. Agron.,
Univ. Chile, Casilla 1004, Santiago, Chile), P.S. Nobel, Agric. For. Meteor.,
49(4), 261-279, Mar. 1990.
Plant productivity was predicted for 253 regions on a world-wide basis using
data from 1464 weather stations within 60° of the equator. For simulations
including the world-wide changes in photosynthetically active radiation, and
temperature and rainfall patterns that will most likely accompany a doubling in
the ambient CO2 level, productivity of at least 10 tons ha-1 yr-1 was predicted
in the absence of irrigation for 54% of the earth's land surface area. Under
elevated CO2, there was increased productivity predicted for most of the United
States and western South America.
"Plant and Ecosystem Responses to Increasing Atmospheric CO2,"
J.I.L. Morison (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Reading, 2 Earley Gate, Whiteknights,
Reading RG6 2AU, UK), Trends Ecol. Evolution, 5(3), 69-70, Mar.
There is an urgent need for quantitative data collected from intact systems,
where interactions between components occur, to determine how increased CO2 and
changed climate affect ecosystem primary productivity, carbon sequestering and
nutrient cycling. Reviews two studies that measured intact ecosystem responses
to increased CO2: tussock tundra in Alaska, and a salt marsh in Chesapeake Bay.
"Changes in Stomatal Density in Rice Grown Under Various CO2 Regimes
with Natural Solar Irradiance," A.J. Rowland-Bamford (Dept. Agron., Bldg.
164, Univ. Florida, Gainesville FL 32611), C. Nordenbrock et al., Environ.
Exper. Bot., 30(2), 175-180, 1990.
Rice grown from seed under natural solar irradiance was exposed to CO2 from
9 days after planting until senescence. Increasing CO2 concentrations resulted
in a rise in stomatal density of leaves at both growth stages. This response
appears to be a species-dependent phenomenon that varies with leaf surface and
CO2 range used.
"Implications of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment and Climatic Change for
the Geographical Distribution of Two Introduced Vines in the U.S.A.," T.W.
Sasek (Sch. Forestry, Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706), B.R. Strain, Clim.
Change, 16, 31-51, 1990.
Direct effects of CO2 enrichment on growth of kudzu and Japanese honeysuckle
were assessed by growing them in controlled environment chambers. In both
species, CO2 enrichment increased instantaneous water use efficiency by
increasing photosynthetic rates and reducing transpiration rates, suggesting
that atmospheric CO2 enrichment may allow westward and northward spread of both
species in the U.S.A. Assessment of indirect effects of climatic change shows
that decreases in summer precipitation may minimize westward spread, despite
improved water use efficiency and increased drought tolerance.
"The Impact of Climate Change on Continuous Corn Production in the
Southern U.S.A.," E.J. Cooter (Oklahoma Climatol. Survey, Univ. Oklahoma,
Norman OK 73109), ibid., 53-82.
The Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model has been
used in conjunction with a field-level plant process model and a field-level
pesticide transport model to study the impacts of doubled levels of atmospheric
CO2 on various aspects of corn production. Limitations on the use of the climate
scenario in conjunction with the process models are discussed. Results suggest
substantial changes in agricultural production and management practices may be
needed to respond to the climate changes expected to take place throughout the
"Differential Growth Response to Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
Enrichment in Seedlings of Cedrus atlantica and Pinus nigra ssp.
Laricio var. Corsicana," P. Kaushal, J.M. Guehl (Inst. Nat.
Recherche Agron., Ctr. de Nancy, Champenoux, F-54280 Seichamps, France), G.
Aussenac, Can. J. For. Res., 19(11), 1351-1358, Nov. 1989.
Nine-month-old seedlings were transplanted into containers permitting root
growth observations and later transferred to the greenhouse, where they were
exposed to ambient and enriched CO2 atmospheric conditions. The biomass of
enriched plants was 66% (C. atlantica) and 30% (P. nigra) higher
than those of plants grown at ambient conditions. Height and diameter growth
were 20% (C. atlantica) and 10% (P. nigra) higher in the
enriched treatment. The differential growth appears to be related to distinct
genetic growth patterns, namely, different patterns of root growth before bud
break and during aerial growth.
"Effects of Temperature and CO2 Enrichment on Kinetic Properties of
NADP+-malate Dehydrogenase in Two Ecotypes of Barnyard Grass (Echinochloa
crus-galli (L.) Beauv.) from Contrasting Climates," J.-P. Simon (Dept.
Biol., C.P. 6128, Succursale A, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7, Can.),
C. Potvin, B.R. Strain, Oecologia, 81(1), 138-144, 1989.
CO2 enrichment did not modify appreciably the catalytic properties of
NADP+-MDH and did not have a compensatory effect upon catalysis or enzyme
activity under cool acclimatory conditions. NADP+-MDH activities were always in
excess of the amount required to support observed rates of CO2 assimilation and
these two parameters were correlated. The enhanced photosynthetic performance of
plants from Québec under cold temperature conditions, as compared to
those from Mississippi, cannot be attributed to kinetic differences of
NADP+-malate dehydrogenase among these ecotypes.
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