February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1990
"On the Dependence of Climate Sensitivity on Convective
Parameterization," W.M. Cunnington (Meteorol. Off., Bracknell, Berkshire
RG12 2SZ, UK), J.F.B Mitchell, Clim. Dynamics, 4(2), 85-93, Apr.
Two sensitivity experiments in which CO2 is doubled and sea-surface
temperatures are enhanced determined the influence of the convective
parameterization on simulated climate change. A penetrative scheme gives the
greater upper tropospheric warming (over 4.5 K compared to 4 K) and the greater
reduction in upper tropospheric cloud, consistent with recent CO2 sensitivity
studies. In contrast, a nonpenetrative scheme gives a 0.7 Wm-2 greater increase
in net downward radiation at the top of the atmosphere, implying a larger
tropical warming, inconsistent with recent CO2 studies. Discusses possible
explanations for these results.
"Ocean-Circulation Model of the Carbon Cycle," R. Bacastow
(Scripps Inst. Oceanog., San Diego, La Jolla CA 92093), E. Maier-Reimer,
Describes a three-dimensional model of the natural carbon cycle in the
oceans that includes the effect of ocean biota. Their effect on ocean chemistry
is represented in a simple way, and model distributions of chemical species are
compared with distributions observed during GEOSECS and other expeditions.
"Global Atmospheric Chemistry of CFC-123," R.G. Prinn (Dept.
Earth Sci., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), A. Golombek, Nature,
344(6261), 47-49, Mar. 1, 1990.
Examines the suitability of CFC-123 as a substitute for ozone-destroying
CFC-11, using a 3-D global model to analyze the chemical destruction rates of
CFC-123 by various processes. Confirms that the chief sink is destruction by OH
radicals below 12 km, accounting for 88% of its loss. For equal rates (by mass)
of CFC-123 and CFC-11 emission to the atmosphere, the molar content in the
atmosphere and the injection rate of chlorine into the stratosphere are,
respectively, 48 and 14 times greater for CFC-11 than for CFC-123 in steady
"Rapid Climatic Change and the Deep Ocean," R.G. Watts (Dept.
Mech. Eng., Tulane Univ., New Orleans LA 70118), M. Morantine, Clim. Change,
16(1), 83-97, 1990.
Uses a simple, transient, two-dimensional (latitude-depth)
upwelling-diffusion ocean model, coupled with an energy balance climate model,
to determine the surface temperature response to changes in the deep water
formation rate. Changes in surface temperature are large and rapid with a large
magnification at high latitudes, suggesting that rapid climate changes during
the Glacial-Holocene transition could have been the result of variations in the
rate of deep water formation. If true, this mechanism is essentially transient
in nature and cannot be predicted using steady state models.
"Obtaining Sub-Grid-Scale Information From Coarse-Resolution General
Circulation Model Output," T.M.L. Wigley (Clim. Res. Unit, Univ. East
Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), P.D. Jones et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95(D2),
1943-1953, Feb. 20, 1990.
Explores the relationship between local temperature and precipitation and
large-scale climate, using regression analysis to meet the need of the impact
analyst for small-scale information, which is given only coarser resolution
model output. Uses examples to show that there are large spatial differences in
the amount of local climate variance that can be explained by large-scale data.
"Modeling Coastal Landscape Dynamics," R. Costanza (Chesapeake
Biol. Lab., Univ. Maryland, Solomons MD 20688), F.H. Sklar, M.L. White, BioSci.,
40(2), 91-107, Feb. 1990.
Process-based dynamic spatial ecosystem simulation can examine long-term
natural changes and human impacts. Two developments, ready accessibility of
extensive spatial and temporal databases and advances in computer power and
convenience, make this modeling feasible. This approach can be scaled up for
global ecosystem modeling to assess the impacts of global climate change, and
also scaled down to assess local effects in more detail.
"The Global Geochemistry of Bomb-Produced Tritium: General
Circulation Model Compared to Available Observations and Traditional
Interpretations," R.D. Koster (NASA-GSFC, Code 624, Greenbelt MD 20771),
W.S. Broecker et al., J. Geophys. Res., 94(D15), 18,305-18,326,
Dec. 20, 1989.
Uses the Goddard Institute for Space Studies 8° x 10° atmospheric
general circulation model to simulate tritium transport from the upper
atmosphere to the ocean. The simulation shows that tritium is delivered to the
ocean about equally by vapor and precipitation. The model result is insensitive
to several imposed changes in source location, model parameterizations and model
resolution. Explains reasons for possible discrepancies.
"Atmosphere-Ocean Heat Fluxes and Stresses in General Circulation
Models," S.J. Lambert (Can. Clim. Ctr., Downsview, Ont. M3H 5T4, Can.),
G.J. Boer, Atmos.-Ocean, 27(4), 692-715, Dec. 1989.
The coupling of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) to oceanic
general circulation models requires that each behaves appropriately in the
uncoupled mode. The atmosphere-ocean fluxes of energy and momentum developed in
a collection of twelve AGCMs are compared with the climatological estimates of
these terms. The fluxes are found to be qualitatively similar to the
climatological estimates, but with quantitative differences of considerable
magnitude for some models and scatter among model values.
"Differences Among Model Simulations of Climate Change on the Scale
of Resource Regions," R.M. Cushman (Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge TN
37831), P.N. Spring, Environ. Mgmt., 13(6), 789-795, Nov./Dec.
Quantifies the differences in temperature and precipitation simulated by
three major GCMs for four specific regions: agricultural, demographic,
hydrologic and political. Both the current climate and the climatic response to
a doubling CO2 are considered. Even when the data were averaged on a seasonal
basis, marked differences in areal average climate were predicted by the
different models in each region, for both the control and the doubled CO2
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