February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1990
STRATOSPHERIC OZONE CHEMISTRY
"Natural and Anthropogenic Sources of Ozone Depletion in Polar
Areas--Climatic and Oceanic Consequences," G. Cali (Univ. of Naples,
Italy), A. Mazzarella, A. Palumbo, Nuovo Cimento C, Serie 1, 12,
107-111, Jan./Feb. 1989.
Studied the influence of sunspot number on the ozone layer. Concludes that
solar activity is responsible for a large portion of ozone depletion recently
observed in high latitudes. Discusses climatic and oceanic consequences.
"Detection of HOCl in the Antarctic Stratosphere," G.C. Toon
(Jet Propulsion Lab., MS 183-401, Calif. Inst. Technol., Pasadena CA 91109),
C.B. Farmer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 16(12), 1375-1377, Dec. 1989.
Measured the burden (integrated vertical column abundance) over Antarctica
of HOCl from solar absorption spectra in September 1987. The result, 1.5 + or -
0.4 x 1014 molecules/ cm-2, poses an important constraint on the amount of HOx
inside the Antarctic winter vortex and on the contribution of the HOCl catalytic
cycle to the observed springtime ozone depletion.
"Profiles of Nitric Oxide in the Upper Stratosphere," Y. Kondo
(Res. Inst. Atmos., Nagoya Univ., Toyokawa, Aichi, Japan), A. Iwata et al., ibid.,
Presents data from a chemiluminescent NO detector and an in situ
ozone instrument made from high altitude balloons launched at Aire sur l'Adour
(44° N, 0° W) and from Gap (44.5° N, 6° E). The average NO
concentration was 9 ppbv at 35 km, increasing with altitude to 11.5 ppbv at 40
km. Below 34 km, the NO concentration in September 1987 was 20% to 35% larger
than in June 1988. Provides an accurate determination of the daytime
mid-latitude NO concentration in the upper stratosphere in summer and autumn.
"Comparison of Stratospheric Clouds in the Antarctic and the Arctic,"
D.J. Hofman (Dept. Phys., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), T. Deshler, ibid.,
Compares the particle size distribution from balloon-borne measurements of
stratospheric clouds, in the Arctic and Antarctic. Two distinct classes of
particles were found: a small mode (r і 0.2 micro m) in which at least
half of the available condensation nuclei have grown, and a large mode (r і
2-3 micro m) in which fewer than 1% of the available condensation nuclei have
grown. Suggests that the small particles found in large layers are related to
fast cooling events such as those associated with mountain lee waves.
"Balloon Borne In-Situ Detection of OH in the Stratosphere from 37
to 23 km," R.M. Stimpfle (Dept. Earth and Planetary Sci., 40 Oxford St.,
Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), L.B. Lapson et al., ibid.,
OH abundances ranged from 88 + or - 31 pptv in the 35-36 km interval to 0.9
+ or - 0.8 pptv in the 23-24 km interval. Simultaneous detection of ozone and
water vapor densities was carried out with separate on-board instruments.
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 70(12), Dec. 1989. The
following summarize sessions from April 1989 meetings in San Francisco.
"The NATO Advanced Research Workshop in Dynamics, Chemistry, and
Photochemistry in the Middle Atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere," A.
O'Neill (Meteor. Off., Bracknell, Berkshire, UK), C.R. Mechoso, 1546-1552. Two
sessions dealt solely with stratospheric ozone depletion and suggest areas that
need more study, such as quantifying and classifying the differences between
"Summary of the Seventh Conference on Meteorology of the Middle
Atmosphere," R.A. Madden (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), 1553-1559.
Among the presentations: parameterization of global-scale dynamical feedback in
simplified general circulation models used for long-term ozone climate
scenarios; the links between nitrogen and chlorine chemistry in the
photochemistry leading to Ant-arctic ozone depletion.
"Evidence for Stratospheric Nitric Acid Condensation from Balloon
and Rocket Measurements in the Arctic," F. Arnold (Max-Planck Inst.,
Postfach 103 980, D-6900 Heidelberg, FRG), H. Schlager et al., Nature,
342(6249), 493-498, Nov. 30, 1989.
Strong evidence for nitric acid condensation at altitudes of about 18-23 km
is provided by balloon- and rocket-borne measurements made near Kiruna, northern
Sweden, in January 1989. Nitric acid condensation is believed to be a necessary
step in the chemical preconditioning required for chlorine-catalyzed ozone
"Photoisomerization of OClO: A Possible Mechanism for Polar Ozone
Depletion," V. Vaida (Dept. Chem., Univ. Colo., Boulder CO 80309), S.
Solomon et al., Nature, 342(6248), 405-408, Nov. 23, 1989.
Reports laboratory studies of OClO spectroscopy and photoproducts which
suggest that atomic Cl and O2 are formed to some extent in the photodissociation
process. Points toward possible photoisomerization to the unstable species ClOO,
probably by way of the 2B2 excited state of OClO, reinforcing the idea that
photolysis of OClO may contribute to ozone depletion.
"Nitrogen Oxides from High-Altitude Aircraft: An Update of Potential
Effects on Ozone," H.S. Johnston (Dept. Chem., Univ. Calif., Berkeley CA
94720), D.E. Kinnison, D.J. Wuebbles, J. Geophys. Res., 94(D13),
16,351-16,363, Nov. 20, 1989.
Investigates the sensitivity of stratospheric ozone to NOx emissions in
conjunction with current understanding of atmospheric chemical and physical
processes. Among the major findings are: (1) emissions of nitrogen oxides can
reduce stratospheric ozone on a global basis, depending strongly on the
injection altitude and magnitude; (2) reduction also depends on the latitude of
the injections, with the maximum ozone reduction at tropical injections, but,
for a given injection, the largest ozone column reductions occur in the polar
regions; and (3) for very large Clx mixing ratios, NOx emissions can increase
the ozone column, partially counteracting the ozone reduction caused by Clx.
"A Three-Dimensional Model of Chemically Active Trace Species in the
Middle Atmosphere During Disturbed Winter Conditions," K. Rose (Inst.
Meteor., Free Univ. Berlin, Berlin FRG), G. Brasseur, ibid.,
Model results exhibit the gross features seen in the real atmosphere during
a simulated wave number 1 warming, including the transport of chemically active
trace species such as ozone, nitric acid and nitrogen oxides. The model
simulation suggests that the polar vortex behaves as a material entity during
the planetary wave disturbance. At the same time, poleward vortex transport is
accomplished through tongues of tracers originating in the tropics. Addresses
the effect of nonlinearity on transport.
"New Spectral Features of Stratospheric Trace Gases Identified from
High-Resolution Infrared Balloon-Borne and Laboratory Spectra," A. Goldman
(Dept. Phys., Univ. Denver, Denver CO 80208), F.J. Murcray et al., ibid.,
94(D12), 14,945-14,955, Oct. 20, 1989.
Reports results obtained for several important strato-spheric trace gases,
HNO3, ClONO2, HO2NO2, NO2, and COF2, in the 8-12 micro m spectral region. Many
new features of these gases have been identified in the stratospheric spectra.
Comparison of the new spectra with line-by-line simulations shows that previous
spectral line parameters are often inadequate, and new analysis of high
resolution laboratory and atmospheric spectra will be required for many bands.
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Index of Abbreviations