February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1990
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
"The Future Role of Tropical Forests in Affecting the Carbon Dioxide
Concentration of the Atmosphere," R.A. Houghton (Woods Hole Res. Ctr., POB
296, Woods Hole MA 02543), Ambio, 19(4), 204-209, July 1990.
Reforestation could offer a temporary solution to help stabilize the
concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The total net release of carbon to the
atmosphere from both fossil fuels and deforestation could be eliminated
indefinitely, if the halting of deforestation is accompanied by the substitution
of sustainably harvested wood fuels for fossil fuels and if the use of fossil
fuels does not increase above current rates.
"The CFC-Ozone Issue: Progress on the Development of Alternatives to
CFCs," L.E. Manzer (Cent. R & D Dept., Du Pont Exper. Sta., Wilmington
DE 19880), Science, 249(4964), 31-35, July 6, 1990.
Identifying suitable substitutes is difficult when toxicity, flammability,
cost, environmental impact and physical properties must be considered. Many
potentially viable routes to manufacturing alternatives exist, but they will
require improvements in catalysis. Issues such as materials compatibility,
energy efficiency, the needs of developing countries, and the product life cycle
of the alternatives also need to be resolved before timely transition to
substitutes can be accomplished.
"Ocean Response to Greenhouse Warming," U. Mikolajewicz
(Max-Planck Inst. Meteor., Bundesstrasse 55, D-2000 Hamburg 13, FRG), B.D.
Santer, E. Maier-Reimer, Nature, 345(6276), 589-593, June 14,
The Hamburg ocean general circulation model, incorporating both thermal
effects and the dynamic effects associated with oceanic general circulation, is
used to investigate the regional as well as global responses of sea level.
Results (to be viewed as a test of ocean sensitivity rather than a prediction)
indicate a global mean rise of 19 cm in 50 years from thermal expansion alone,
with the North Atlantic rising by 40 cm, while the Ross Sea falls through
changes in ocean circulation.
"Nitrous Oxide from Fossil Fuel Combustion," W.P. Linak (AEERL,
U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park NC 27711), J.A. McSorley et al., J.
Geophys. Res., 95(D6), 7533-7541, May 20, 1990.
Re-examines the role of coal combustion as a significant global source of
N2O emissions through online emission measurements from six
pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory and pilot-scale
combustors. Concludes that N2O emissions are not directly related to NO
emissions from these combustion sources and that this source of N2O is
"Evidence for Thinning of the Arctic Ice Cover North of Greenland,"
P. Wadhams (Scott Polar Res. Inst., Univ. Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1ER, UK),
Nature, 345(6278), 795-797, June 28, 1990.
An ice profiling experiment carried out by submarine showed a zone of
thinning ice extending more than 400 km north of Greenland, constituting a loss
of volume of at least 15% over an area of 300,000 km2. This illustrates the
importance of monitoring Arctic ice thickness more systematically to determine
whether such fluctuations fall within the limits of normal interannual
"Calibrations of the 14C Timescale over the Past 30,000 Years Using
Mass Spectrometric U-Th Ages from Barbados Corals," E. Bard (Centre des
Faibles Radioactivités, CNRS-CEA, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France), B.
Hamelin et al., Nature, 345(6274), 405-410, May 31, 1990.
The technique provides a way of calibrating the radiocarbon timescale beyond
the range of dendrochronological calibration; before 9,000 yr BP the 14C ages
are systematically younger than the U-Th ages, with a maximum difference of
about 3,500 yr at about 20,000 yr BP. (See RESEARCH NEWS, this Global
Climate Change Digest issue--Sep. 1990.)
"The Greenhouse Effect: Negotiating Targets," M. Grubb, Intl.
Affairs, 66(1), 67-89, Jan. 1990.
Presents an abridged version of a full-length study published under the same
title by the Energy and Environmental Programme of the Royal Institute of
International Affairs. (See Global Climate Change Digest,
REPORTS/GENERAL & POLICY, Mar. 1990.) Shows why effective limits to
greenhouse gas emissions will not be negotiable on the basis of
country-by-country targets. Looks at alternatives, including a carbon tax, and
argues that a system of tradable carbon emission permits is the only realistic
possibility for limiting greenhouse emissions globally. Considers the
alternatives if no global agreement is possible
SPECIAL ISSUE: Papers from the 1989 ASHRAE CFC Technology Conference,
Intl. J. Refrig. (Rev. Intl. Froid), 13(2), 1990.
"The Chemistry of Stratospheric Ozone--Its Response to Natural and
Anthropogenic Influences," M.J. Kurylo (Nat. Inst. Stand. & Technol.,
Ctr. Chem. Technol., Gaithersburg MD 20899), 62-72.
"Compatibility Requirements for CFC Alternatives," H. Spauschús
(Spauschús Assoc., 761 Woodward Way, Atlanta GA 30327), 73-78.
"Beyond CFCs--Extending the Search for New Refrigerants," W.L.
Kopko (Div. Appl. Sys., 191A, York Intl. Corp., POB 1592, York PA 17405), 79-85.
"Overview of Alternatives to CFCs for Domestic Refrigerators and
Freezers," J.L. Boot (Whirlpool Corp., Evansville IN 47727), 100-105.
"Commercial Refrigeration and CFCs," E.B. Muir (Copeland Corp.,
1675 W. Campbell Rd., Sidney OH 45365), 106-112.
"CFC Alternatives for Thermal Insulation Foams," I.R. Shankland
(Allied Signal Inc., 20 Peabody St., Buffalo NY 14210), 113-121.
"CFC Research Programs in Western Europe," H. Kruse (Inst. Refrig.
& Heat Pumps, Univ. Hanover, D-3000, Hanover, FRG), 122-130.
"Impact of CFC Curtailment on Refrigeration and Mitigation Research in
Japan," K. Ushimaru (Energy Int. Inc., 127 Bellevue Way SE, S. 200,
Bellevue WA 98004), 131-141.
"Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Forests," P.G. Jarvis (Dept.
For. Nat. Resour., Univ. Edinburgh, Mayfield Rd., Edinburgh EH9 3JU, UK), Phil.
Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 324(223), 369-392, Aug. 31, 1989.
Examines the effects of the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration on forests
and trees and discusses the possible impact of forests on the atmospheric CO2
concentration. Suggests that although the forest is having an impact on the
global atmospheric concentration, it seems unlikely that expansion of the forest
resource could effectively reduce the increase in atmospheric CO2.
NEW PUBLICATION: Global Environmental Change, Dec. 1990. Will
address human, ecological and public policy aspects of environmental concerns.
Papers are invited on the following general themes: trends in levels of risk,
exposure and vulnerability; methods for assessing surprises, risks and impacts;
adaptive and preventive strategies; institutional arrangements for managing
global change; and the collection, communication and interpretation of global
change information. Send papers and requests for subscriptions outside the U.S.
and Canada to Penny Street, Butterworth Sci. Ltd., Westbury House, Bury St.,
Guilford, Surrey GU2 5BH, UK (tel: 44-0483-300966). For subscriptions in the
U.S. and Canada contact: Promotion Dept., Butterworths, 80 Montvale Ave.,
Stoneham MA 02180; 617-438-8464.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations