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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d90sep1

"The Future Role of Tropical Forests in Affecting the Carbon Dioxide Concentration of the Atmosphere," R.A. Houghton (Woods Hole Res. Ctr., POB 296, Woods Hole MA 02543), Ambio, 19(4), 204-209, July 1990.

Reforestation could offer a temporary solution to help stabilize the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The total net release of carbon to the atmosphere from both fossil fuels and deforestation could be eliminated indefinitely, if the halting of deforestation is accompanied by the substitution of sustainably harvested wood fuels for fossil fuels and if the use of fossil fuels does not increase above current rates.

Item #d90sep2

"The CFC-Ozone Issue: Progress on the Development of Alternatives to CFCs," L.E. Manzer (Cent. R & D Dept., Du Pont Exper. Sta., Wilmington DE 19880), Science, 249(4964), 31-35, July 6, 1990.

Identifying suitable substitutes is difficult when toxicity, flammability, cost, environmental impact and physical properties must be considered. Many potentially viable routes to manufacturing alternatives exist, but they will require improvements in catalysis. Issues such as materials compatibility, energy efficiency, the needs of developing countries, and the product life cycle of the alternatives also need to be resolved before timely transition to substitutes can be accomplished.

Item #d90sep3

"Ocean Response to Greenhouse Warming," U. Mikolajewicz (Max-Planck Inst. Meteor., Bundesstrasse 55, D-2000 Hamburg 13, FRG), B.D. Santer, E. Maier-Reimer, Nature, 345(6276), 589-593, June 14, 1990.

The Hamburg ocean general circulation model, incorporating both thermal effects and the dynamic effects associated with oceanic general circulation, is used to investigate the regional as well as global responses of sea level. Results (to be viewed as a test of ocean sensitivity rather than a prediction) indicate a global mean rise of 19 cm in 50 years from thermal expansion alone, with the North Atlantic rising by 40 cm, while the Ross Sea falls through changes in ocean circulation.

Item #d90sep4

"Nitrous Oxide from Fossil Fuel Combustion," W.P. Linak (AEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park NC 27711), J.A. McSorley et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95(D6), 7533-7541, May 20, 1990.

Re-examines the role of coal combustion as a significant global source of N2O emissions through online emission measurements from six pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors. Concludes that N2O emissions are not directly related to NO emissions from these combustion sources and that this source of N2O is negligible.

Item #d90sep5

"Evidence for Thinning of the Arctic Ice Cover North of Greenland," P. Wadhams (Scott Polar Res. Inst., Univ. Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1ER, UK), Nature, 345(6278), 795-797, June 28, 1990.

An ice profiling experiment carried out by submarine showed a zone of thinning ice extending more than 400 km north of Greenland, constituting a loss of volume of at least 15% over an area of 300,000 km2. This illustrates the importance of monitoring Arctic ice thickness more systematically to determine whether such fluctuations fall within the limits of normal interannual variability.

Item #d90sep6

"Calibrations of the 14C Timescale over the Past 30,000 Years Using Mass Spectrometric U-Th Ages from Barbados Corals," E. Bard (Centre des Faibles Radioactivités, CNRS-CEA, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France), B. Hamelin et al., Nature, 345(6274), 405-410, May 31, 1990.

The technique provides a way of calibrating the radiocarbon timescale beyond the range of dendrochronological calibration; before 9,000 yr BP the 14C ages are systematically younger than the U-Th ages, with a maximum difference of about 3,500 yr at about 20,000 yr BP. (See RESEARCH NEWS, this Global Climate Change Digest issue--Sep. 1990.)

Item #d90sep7

"The Greenhouse Effect: Negotiating Targets," M. Grubb, Intl. Affairs, 66(1), 67-89, Jan. 1990.

Presents an abridged version of a full-length study published under the same title by the Energy and Environmental Programme of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. (See Global Climate Change Digest, REPORTS/GENERAL & POLICY, Mar. 1990.) Shows why effective limits to greenhouse gas emissions will not be negotiable on the basis of country-by-country targets. Looks at alternatives, including a carbon tax, and argues that a system of tradable carbon emission permits is the only realistic possibility for limiting greenhouse emissions globally. Considers the alternatives if no global agreement is possible

Item #d90sep8

SPECIAL ISSUE: Papers from the 1989 ASHRAE CFC Technology Conference, Intl. J. Refrig. (Rev. Intl. Froid), 13(2), 1990.

"The Chemistry of Stratospheric Ozone--Its Response to Natural and Anthropogenic Influences," M.J. Kurylo (Nat. Inst. Stand. & Technol., Ctr. Chem. Technol., Gaithersburg MD 20899), 62-72.

"Compatibility Requirements for CFC Alternatives," H. Spauschús (Spauschús Assoc., 761 Woodward Way, Atlanta GA 30327), 73-78.

"Beyond CFCs--Extending the Search for New Refrigerants," W.L. Kopko (Div. Appl. Sys., 191A, York Intl. Corp., POB 1592, York PA 17405), 79-85.

"Overview of Alternatives to CFCs for Domestic Refrigerators and Freezers," J.L. Boot (Whirlpool Corp., Evansville IN 47727), 100-105.

"Commercial Refrigeration and CFCs," E.B. Muir (Copeland Corp., 1675 W. Campbell Rd., Sidney OH 45365), 106-112.

"CFC Alternatives for Thermal Insulation Foams," I.R. Shankland (Allied Signal Inc., 20 Peabody St., Buffalo NY 14210), 113-121.

"CFC Research Programs in Western Europe," H. Kruse (Inst. Refrig. & Heat Pumps, Univ. Hanover, D-3000, Hanover, FRG), 122-130.

"Impact of CFC Curtailment on Refrigeration and Mitigation Research in Japan," K. Ushimaru (Energy Int. Inc., 127 Bellevue Way SE, S. 200, Bellevue WA 98004), 131-141.

Item #d90sep9

"Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Forests," P.G. Jarvis (Dept. For. Nat. Resour., Univ. Edinburgh, Mayfield Rd., Edinburgh EH9 3JU, UK), Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 324(223), 369-392, Aug. 31, 1989.

Examines the effects of the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration on forests and trees and discusses the possible impact of forests on the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Suggests that although the forest is having an impact on the global atmospheric concentration, it seems unlikely that expansion of the forest resource could effectively reduce the increase in atmospheric CO2.

Item #d90sep10

NEW PUBLICATION: Global Environmental Change, Dec. 1990. Will address human, ecological and public policy aspects of environmental concerns. Papers are invited on the following general themes: trends in levels of risk, exposure and vulnerability; methods for assessing surprises, risks and impacts; adaptive and preventive strategies; institutional arrangements for managing global change; and the collection, communication and interpretation of global change information. Send papers and requests for subscriptions outside the U.S. and Canada to Penny Street, Butterworth Sci. Ltd., Westbury House, Bury St., Guilford, Surrey GU2 5BH, UK (tel: 44-0483-300966). For subscriptions in the U.S. and Canada contact: Promotion Dept., Butterworths, 80 Montvale Ave., Stoneham MA 02180; 617-438-8464.

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