February 28, 2007
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FROM VOLUME 3, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1990
EARTH RADIATION BUDGET
"Cloud-Reflected Radiation," P.G. McCormick (Dept. Civil Eng.,
James Cook Univ. N. Queensland, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia), H.
Suehrcke, Nature, 345(6278), 773, June 28, 1990. A letter
discussing observations showing that the increase in the level of ultraviolet
radiation due to cloud reflection is significant, with cloud type strongly
determining radiation concentration.
"A Comparison of Two Major Earth Radiation Budget Data Sets,"
H.L. Kyle (NASA-GSFC, Greenbelt MD 20771), A. Mecherikunnel et al., J.
Geophys. Res., 95(D7), 9951-9970, June 20, 1990.
Data obtained from the Nimbus 7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) spacecraft
mission are compared with those from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment
(ERBE) for several overlapping months during the period November 1984 to January
1986. Time- and space-averaged data products for April, July, and October 1985
and January 1986 show that the Nimbus 7 ERB global averages agree in the mean
with combined ERBS/NOAA 9 scanner values to within 0.16% in the outgoing
long-wave radiation and 0.03% in albedo.
"Radiative Forcing of Climate by Changes in the Vertical
Distribution of Ozone," A.A. Lacis (NASA Goddard Inst. Space Studies, 2880
Broadway, New York NY 10025), D.J. Wuebbles, J.A. Logan, ibid.,
A parameterization is used based on one-dimensional radiative-convective
equilibrium calculations that predict increased surface temperature from
decreased ozone above 30 km as well as from increased ozone below 30 km.
Observed ozone trends suggest a cooling of surface temperature in northern
mid-latitudes during the 1970s equal to about half the warming predicted from
CO2 in the same period, although uncertainty is large. Results are opposite from
those obtained previously based on one-dimensional photochemical model
"Polar Twilight UV-Visible Radiation Field: Perturbations due to
Multiple Scattering, Ozone Depletion, Strato-spheric Clouds, and Surface Albedo,"
D.E. Anderson Jr. (Computational Phys. Inc., POB 360, Annandale VA 22003), S.A.
Lloyd, J. Geophys. Res., 95(D6), 7429-7434, May 20, 1990.
Uses a synthesis of several models to investigate radiative transfer in the
twilight polar troposphere and stratosphere. Perturbations on the radiation
field lead to enhanced ozone destruction in the stratosphere, increased surface
irradiance and a significant wavelength-dependent increase in nadir radiance.
"Outgoing Long-Wave Radiation Computed from HIRS2/MSU Soundings,"
M.-Li. C. Wu (NASA/GSFC, Code 611, Greenbelt MD 20771), J. Susskind, ibid.,
Fields of outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) were computed using sounding
data as input to a modified version of the Wu-Kaplan radiation code used in a
fourth-order general circulation model. Comparison of computed OLR fields with
measured fields over this time period allows for comparison of the time and
space dependence of global mean values.
"Upwelling Diffusion Climate Models: Analytical Solutions for
Radiative and Upwelling Forcing," M. Morantine (Dept. Mech. Eng., Tulane
Univ., New Orleans LA 70118), R.G. Watts, ibid., 7563-7571. The
transient thermal response of surface temperature due to radiation forcing of an
upwelling diffusion model is found to be significantly more rapid than that of
the box diffusion model.
"Bistability of CCN Concentrations and Thermodynamics in the
Cloud-Topped Boundary Layer," M.B. Baker (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ.
Washington, Seattle WA 98195), R.J. Charlson, Nature, 345(6271),
142-145, May 10, 1990.
Explains that the observed near-constancy of cloud condensation nuclei
concentrations in remote marine air is thought to be due to a balance of source
and sink processes. Using a simple model of the marine cloud-topped boundary
layer, solutions give two stable CCN concentration regimes. One corresponds to
the low concentrations observed over the ocean, the other to the higher
concentrations observed over land; each is dominated by different sink
mechanisms. Both regimes have different optical properties that may be of
"Satellite Observation of the Earth Radiation Budget and Clouds,"
R.S. Kandel (Lab. Météor. Dynamique du CNRS, École
Polytech., F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France), Space Sci. Rev., 52(1/2),
1-32, Feb. 1990.
The ongoing NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment and the WCRP
International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project have begun to provide new
results on the role of clouds and radiation in the climate system. Offers
recommendations regarding the directions to be taken in planning for the future
of the global climate satellite monitoring system.
"Effects of Tropospheric Aerosols on the Solar Radiative Heating in
a Clear Atmosphere," C.M. Liu (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Nat. Taiwan Univ.,
Taipai, Taiwan, R.O.C.), S.S. Ou, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 41(3),
Modifies the solar radiation model developed by Liou et al. to incorporate
the parameterization of solar radiative transfer in an aerosol layer. Results
compare favorably with other schemes.
"Tropospheric Influence on Solar Ultraviolet Radiation: The Role of
Clouds," J.E. Frederick (Dept. Geophys. Sci., Univ. Chicago, 5734 S. Ellis
Ave., Chicago IL 60637), H.E. Snell, J. Clim., 3(3), 373-381,
Measurements obtained from several Robertson-Berger meters over the course
of one year define the role of cloud cover in moderating biologically effective
ultraviolet radiation at the earth's surface. The spatial structure and temporal
variations exhibited by clouds pose tremendous problems for realistic modeling.
However a simple approach that assumes uniform cloud cover could provide a
useful description of the atmosphere when the time scale of interest is long
compared to that of daily fluctuations in cloudiness.
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