February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1991
"Fourier Transform Infrared Studies of Model Polar Stratospheric
Cloud Surfaces: Growth and Evaporation of Ice and Nitric Acid/Ice," M.A.
Tolbert (Dept. Chem. Kinetics, SRI Intl., 383 Ravenswood Ave., Menlo Pk. CA
94025), A.M. Middlebrook, J. Geophys. Res., 95(D13),
22,423-22,431, Dec. 20, 1990. FTIR spectra are used to monitor growth,
transformation and evaporation of ice and nitric acid trihydrate films for
comparison with theories of PSC behavior.
"Diurnal Variation of Nitric Oxide in the Upper Stratosphere,"
Y. Kondo (Solar-Terr. Environ. Lab., Nagoya Univ., 3-13 Honohara, Toyokawae,
442, Japan), P. Aimedieu et al., ibid., 22,513-22,522. Discusses two
recent measurements of the temporal variation of nitric oxide at constant
altitude near 40 km, made with a balloon-borne chemiluminescence detector, at
44° N in September and at the same latitude in June.
"Stratospheric ClONO2, HCl and HF Concentration Profiles Derived
from Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment Spacelab 3 Observations:
An Update," R. Zander (Inst. Astrophys., Univ. Liège, B-4200 Liège-Ougréèe,
Belg.), M.R. Gunson et al., ibid., 95(D12), 20,519-20,525, Nov.
20, 1990. The new profiles have more realistic temperature dependency
appropriate for stratospheric studies.
"Balloonborne Measurements of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Ozone
at -93° C in the Arctic in February 1990," D.J. Hoffmann (Dept.
Phys., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), T. Deshler, Geophys. Res. Lett.,
17(12), 2185-2188, Nov. 1990.
Measurements of ozone and particle size distributions at Kiruna, Sweden,
indicate that on Feb. 6, 1990, a major cooling event occurred over northern
Scandinavia. Both nitric acid trihydrate and water ice clouds formed in the
19-23 km region. Although ozone levels may have been reduced by a small degree
of chemical depletion, the ozone "minihole" of 165 DU observed by TOMS
was probably an artifact caused by ice clouds at 22 km.
"Evidence for Stratospheric Ozone-Depleting Heterogeneous Chemistry
on Volcanic Aerosols from El Chichón," F. Arnold (Max Planck Inst.
Kernphys., POB 130 980, D-6900 Heidelberg, Ger.), Th. Bürke, S. Qiu, Nature,
348(6296), 49-50, Nov. 1, 1990. Observation of the eruption cloud of El
Chichón (made in June 1982 in France) indicates that conversion of
reactive N gases on sulfate aerosols increased the concentration of nitric acid.
"Simultaneous, in situ Measurements of OH, HO2, O3, and
H2O: A Test of Modeled Stratospheric HOx Chemistry," P.O. Winnberg (Dept.
Chem., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), R.M. Stimpfle et al., Geophys.
Res. Lett., 17(11), 1909-1912, Oct. 1990. Results of a balloon-borne
experiment, launched from Palestine, Texas, are used to address the fundamental
question of what controls stratospheric OH density.
"Evolution of Total Ozone Field during the Breakdown of the
Antarctic Circumpolar Vortex," K.P. Bowman (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ.
Illinois, Urbana IL 61801), J. Geophys. Res., 95(D10),
16,529-16,543, Sep. 20, 1991. Nine years of total ozone measurements from Nimbus
7 show that during the vortex breakdown and filling of the ozone hole, when the
poleward ozone transport is large, planetary wave amplitudes generally decrease.
"Nitric Acid Uptake by Sulfuric Acid Solutions under Stratospheric
Conditions: Determination of Henry's Law Solubility," C.M. Reihs (SRI
Intl., 383 Ravenswood Ave., Menlo Pk. CA 94025), D.M. Golden, M.A. Tolbert, ibid.,
16,545-16,550. The solubilities measured indicate that nitric acid in the global
stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.
"The Dependence of Constituent Transport on Chemistry in a
Two-Dimensional Model of the Middle Atmosphere," A.K. Smith (Dept. Atmos.
Sci., Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109), G.P. Brasseur, ibid., 95(D9),
13,749-13,764, Aug. 20, 1990. Describes a method for altering the meridional and
vertical dynamic transport coefficients for photochemically active species, and
compares with effects of eddy transport.
"Visible and Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy at McMurdo Station,
Antarctica 7. OClO Diurnal Photochemistry and Implications for Ozone
Destruction," S. Solomon (Aeronomy Lab., ERL, R/E/A18, NOAA, Boulder CO
80303), R.W. Sanders, H.L. Miller Jr., ibid., 13,807-13,817. Model
calculations combined with observations suggest that the chlorine-bromine and
chlorine-hydrogen cycles, together with photolysis of the ClO dimer, can account
for much, and possibly all, of the total ozone destruction rate observed in
"Column Ozone Measurements from Palmer Station, Antarctica:
Variations during the Austral Springs of 1988 and 1989," D. Lubin (Space
Inst., Univ. Calif., A-021, La Jolla CA 92093), J.E. Frederick, ibid.,
13,883-13,889. Hourly ground-based measurements of solar ultraviolet irradiance
by scanning spectroradiometer provide time resolution not generally available
from other methods of monitoring Antarctic ozone abundances. This enables
detection of large and rapid changes in total column ozone and UV surface
irradiance associated with the dynamics of the polar vortex.
"Stratospheric NO, NO2, and N2O5: A Comparison of Model Results
with Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Measurements,"
M. Allen (Earth/Space Sci. Div., Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena CA 91109), M.L.
Delitsky, ibid., 14,077-14,282. The agreement between model and
observations for most of the stratosphere serves to confirm key aspects of
current stratospheric chemical models.
"Two-Dimensional Modeling of the Northern Hemisphere High Latitude
Lower Stratosphere," M.P. Chipperfield (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot,
U.K.), J.A. Pyle, ibid., 95(D8), 11,865-11,874, July 20, 1990.
The model successfully simulates observations of recent Antarctic expeditions.
In runs with low levels of chlorine, the presence of PSCs leads to ozone production
due to the inhibition of the classical NOx catalytic destruction cycle. This
could have implications for control strategies.
"A Model of Stratospheric Chemistry and Transport on an Isentropic
Surface," J. Austin (U.K. Meteor. Off., Bracknell, Berkshire, England),
J.R. Holton, ibid., 11,875-11,901. Results from a new type of
photochemical model suggest the need for caution in the interpretation of
certain results of latitude-height models.
"Balloon Observations of Nitric Acid Aerosol Formation in the
Arctic Stratosphere," Geophys. Res. Lett., 17(9), Aug.
"I. Gaseous Nitric Acid," H. Schlager (Max-Planck Inst. Kernphys.,
Postfach 103980, D-6900, Heidelberg, Ger.), F. Arnold et el., 1275-1278. Data
suggest that rapid formation of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols, associated with
substantial condensational depletion of gaseous nitric acid, occurred only at
temperatures corresponding to large HNO3 saturations, which are probably
required for activation of a major fraction of preexisting condensation nuclei.
"II. Aerosol," D.J. Hofmann (Dept. Phys., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie
WY 82071), T. Deshler et al., 1279-1282. The clouds consisted of small (radius
about 0.2 micron) particles, and appeared to have been formed during recent
"Heterogeneous Chemistry on Liquid Sulfate Aerosols: A Comparison
of in situ Measurements with Zero-Dimensional Model Calculations,"
J.H. Mather (Dept. Meteor., Penn. State Univ., University Park PA 16802), W.H.
Brune, ibid., 1283-1286. Comparisons indicate that although
heterogeneous chemistry on background aerosols is inefficient for the direct
conversion of chlorine to its reactive form, the background aerosols can be
effective at converting NOx to HNO3. A ClO enhancement of a factor of two at
midlatitudes can result by homogeneous chemistry.
"Kinetic Measurements of the ClO + O3 yields ClOO + O2 Reaction,"
P.S. Stevens (address immed. above), J.G. Anderson, ibid., 1287-1290.
Concludes that bimolecular reaction does not contribute to the observed ozone
depletion within the antarctic vortex.
"Formation of Nitric Acid Hydrates--A Chemical Equilibrium
Approach," R.H. Smith (Sch. Chem., Macquarie Univ., NSW 2109, Australia),
ibid., 1291-1294. Published data are used to calculate equilibrium
constants for two reactions over the temperature range 190 K to 205 K;
implications for the formation of nitric acid trihydrate in the polar
stratosphere are discussed.
"Potential Effects of Halons on Stratospheric O3 Based on the Montréal
Protocol," J.C. McConnell (York Univ., 4700 Keele St., N. York, Ont. M3J
1P3, Can.), E.M.J. Templeton et al., Atmos.-Ocean, 28(2),
177-188, June 1990. A one-dimensional model indicates the need for modification
of the original Montréal Protocol to include halon production and that
strategies for reducing halon release need to be investigated.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations