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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d91apr26

"Fourier Transform Infrared Studies of Model Polar Stratospheric Cloud Surfaces: Growth and Evaporation of Ice and Nitric Acid/Ice," M.A. Tolbert (Dept. Chem. Kinetics, SRI Intl., 383 Ravenswood Ave., Menlo Pk. CA 94025), A.M. Middlebrook, J. Geophys. Res., 95(D13), 22,423-22,431, Dec. 20, 1990. FTIR spectra are used to monitor growth, transformation and evaporation of ice and nitric acid trihydrate films for comparison with theories of PSC behavior.

Item #d91apr27

"Diurnal Variation of Nitric Oxide in the Upper Stratosphere," Y. Kondo (Solar-Terr. Environ. Lab., Nagoya Univ., 3-13 Honohara, Toyokawae, 442, Japan), P. Aimedieu et al., ibid., 22,513-22,522. Discusses two recent measurements of the temporal variation of nitric oxide at constant altitude near 40 km, made with a balloon-borne chemiluminescence detector, at 44° N in September and at the same latitude in June.

Item #d91apr28

"Stratospheric ClONO2, HCl and HF Concentration Profiles Derived from Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment Spacelab 3 Observations: An Update," R. Zander (Inst. Astrophys., Univ. Liège, B-4200 Liège-Ougréèe, Belg.), M.R. Gunson et al., ibid., 95(D12), 20,519-20,525, Nov. 20, 1990. The new profiles have more realistic temperature dependency appropriate for stratospheric studies.

Item #d91apr29

"Balloonborne Measurements of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Ozone at -93° C in the Arctic in February 1990," D.J. Hoffmann (Dept. Phys., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), T. Deshler, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17(12), 2185-2188, Nov. 1990.

Measurements of ozone and particle size distributions at Kiruna, Sweden, indicate that on Feb. 6, 1990, a major cooling event occurred over northern Scandinavia. Both nitric acid trihydrate and water ice clouds formed in the 19-23 km region. Although ozone levels may have been reduced by a small degree of chemical depletion, the ozone "minihole" of 165 DU observed by TOMS was probably an artifact caused by ice clouds at 22 km.

Item #d91apr30

"Evidence for Stratospheric Ozone-Depleting Heterogeneous Chemistry on Volcanic Aerosols from El Chichón," F. Arnold (Max Planck Inst. Kernphys., POB 130 980, D-6900 Heidelberg, Ger.), Th. Bürke, S. Qiu, Nature, 348(6296), 49-50, Nov. 1, 1990. Observation of the eruption cloud of El Chichón (made in June 1982 in France) indicates that conversion of reactive N gases on sulfate aerosols increased the concentration of nitric acid.

Item #d91apr31

"Simultaneous, in situ Measurements of OH, HO2, O3, and H2O: A Test of Modeled Stratospheric HOx Chemistry," P.O. Winnberg (Dept. Chem., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), R.M. Stimpfle et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 17(11), 1909-1912, Oct. 1990. Results of a balloon-borne experiment, launched from Palestine, Texas, are used to address the fundamental question of what controls stratospheric OH density.

Item #d91apr32

"Evolution of Total Ozone Field during the Breakdown of the Antarctic Circumpolar Vortex," K.P. Bowman (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Illinois, Urbana IL 61801), J. Geophys. Res., 95(D10), 16,529-16,543, Sep. 20, 1991. Nine years of total ozone measurements from Nimbus 7 show that during the vortex breakdown and filling of the ozone hole, when the poleward ozone transport is large, planetary wave amplitudes generally decrease.

Item #d91apr33

"Nitric Acid Uptake by Sulfuric Acid Solutions under Stratospheric Conditions: Determination of Henry's Law Solubility," C.M. Reihs (SRI Intl., 383 Ravenswood Ave., Menlo Pk. CA 94025), D.M. Golden, M.A. Tolbert, ibid., 16,545-16,550. The solubilities measured indicate that nitric acid in the global stratosphere will be found predominantly in the gas phase.

Item #d91apr34

"The Dependence of Constituent Transport on Chemistry in a Two-Dimensional Model of the Middle Atmosphere," A.K. Smith (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109), G.P. Brasseur, ibid., 95(D9), 13,749-13,764, Aug. 20, 1990. Describes a method for altering the meridional and vertical dynamic transport coefficients for photochemically active species, and compares with effects of eddy transport.

Item #d91apr35

"Visible and Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica 7. OClO Diurnal Photochemistry and Implications for Ozone Destruction," S. Solomon (Aeronomy Lab., ERL, R/E/A18, NOAA, Boulder CO 80303), R.W. Sanders, H.L. Miller Jr., ibid., 13,807-13,817. Model calculations combined with observations suggest that the chlorine-bromine and chlorine-hydrogen cycles, together with photolysis of the ClO dimer, can account for much, and possibly all, of the total ozone destruction rate observed in mid-September 1987.

Item #d91apr36

"Column Ozone Measurements from Palmer Station, Antarctica: Variations during the Austral Springs of 1988 and 1989," D. Lubin (Space Inst., Univ. Calif., A-021, La Jolla CA 92093), J.E. Frederick, ibid., 13,883-13,889. Hourly ground-based measurements of solar ultraviolet irradiance by scanning spectroradiometer provide time resolution not generally available from other methods of monitoring Antarctic ozone abundances. This enables detection of large and rapid changes in total column ozone and UV surface irradiance associated with the dynamics of the polar vortex.

Item #d91apr37

"Stratospheric NO, NO2, and N2O5: A Comparison of Model Results with Spacelab 3 Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Measurements," M. Allen (Earth/Space Sci. Div., Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena CA 91109), M.L. Delitsky, ibid., 14,077-14,282. The agreement between model and observations for most of the stratosphere serves to confirm key aspects of current stratospheric chemical models.

Item #d91apr38

"Two-Dimensional Modeling of the Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Lower Stratosphere," M.P. Chipperfield (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot, U.K.), J.A. Pyle, ibid., 95(D8), 11,865-11,874, July 20, 1990. The model successfully simulates observations of recent Antarctic expeditions. In runs with low levels of chlorine, the presence of PSCs leads to ozone production due to the inhibition of the classical NOx catalytic destruction cycle. This could have implications for control strategies.

Item #d91apr39

"A Model of Stratospheric Chemistry and Transport on an Isentropic Surface," J. Austin (U.K. Meteor. Off., Bracknell, Berkshire, England), J.R. Holton, ibid., 11,875-11,901. Results from a new type of photochemical model suggest the need for caution in the interpretation of certain results of latitude-height models.

Item #d91apr40

"Balloon Observations of Nitric Acid Aerosol Formation in the Arctic Stratosphere," Geophys. Res. Lett., 17(9), Aug. 1990.

"I. Gaseous Nitric Acid," H. Schlager (Max-Planck Inst. Kernphys., Postfach 103980, D-6900, Heidelberg, Ger.), F. Arnold et el., 1275-1278. Data suggest that rapid formation of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols, associated with substantial condensational depletion of gaseous nitric acid, occurred only at temperatures corresponding to large HNO3 saturations, which are probably required for activation of a major fraction of preexisting condensation nuclei.

"II. Aerosol," D.J. Hofmann (Dept. Phys., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), T. Deshler et al., 1279-1282. The clouds consisted of small (radius about 0.2 micron) particles, and appeared to have been formed during recent cooling.

Item #d91apr41

"Heterogeneous Chemistry on Liquid Sulfate Aerosols: A Comparison of in situ Measurements with Zero-Dimensional Model Calculations," J.H. Mather (Dept. Meteor., Penn. State Univ., University Park PA 16802), W.H. Brune, ibid., 1283-1286. Comparisons indicate that although heterogeneous chemistry on background aerosols is inefficient for the direct conversion of chlorine to its reactive form, the background aerosols can be effective at converting NOx to HNO3. A ClO enhancement of a factor of two at midlatitudes can result by homogeneous chemistry.

Item #d91apr42

"Kinetic Measurements of the ClO + O3 yields ClOO + O2 Reaction," P.S. Stevens (address immed. above), J.G. Anderson, ibid., 1287-1290. Concludes that bimolecular reaction does not contribute to the observed ozone depletion within the antarctic vortex.

Item #d91apr43

"Formation of Nitric Acid Hydrates--A Chemical Equilibrium Approach," R.H. Smith (Sch. Chem., Macquarie Univ., NSW 2109, Australia), ibid., 1291-1294. Published data are used to calculate equilibrium constants for two reactions over the temperature range 190 K to 205 K; implications for the formation of nitric acid trihydrate in the polar stratosphere are discussed.

Item #d91apr44

"Potential Effects of Halons on Stratospheric O3 Based on the Montréal Protocol," J.C. McConnell (York Univ., 4700 Keele St., N. York, Ont. M3J 1P3, Can.), E.M.J. Templeton et al., Atmos.-Ocean, 28(2), 177-188, June 1990. A one-dimensional model indicates the need for modification of the original Montréal Protocol to include halon production and that strategies for reducing halon release need to be investigated.

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