February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 1991
"Effects of Enhanced Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Aquatic
Ecosystems," D.P. Häder (Inst. Bot. & Pharm. Biol., Staudstr. 5,
D-8520 Erlangen, Ger.), R.C. Worrest, Photochem. Photobiol., 53(5),
717-725, May 1991.
This review finds evidence that both phyto- and zooplankton are under
considerable UV-B stress at current UV radiation levels, and that any decrease
in the ozone layer could have dramatic effects on aquatic ecosystems. However,
uncertainties regarding potential effects are large; problems include
extrapolating laboratory findings to the open sea, and the nearly complete
absence of data on long-term effects and ecosystem responses. Information needed
includes biological action spectra based on dose-response data on a wide variety
of marine species, and field studies that will give spatial and temporal
distribution data and will lead to better understanding and application of
laboratory findings. Molecular mechanisms of damage need to be determined.
"Effect of UV-B Radiation on Leaf Optical Properties Measured with
Fibre Optics," J.F. Bornman (Dept. Plant Physiol., Univ. Lund, Box 7007,
S-220 07 Lund, Swed.), T.C. Vogelmann, J. Exper. Bot., 42(237),
547-554, Apr. 1991.
Brassica campestris, Brassica carinata and Medicago
sativa were exposed for two weeks to supplemental UV-B. As measured with a
fiber optic microprobe, exposure altered the internal light microenvironment
within leaves in different ways for the different species. Changes appeared to
be caused by alterations in pigment content and leaf anatomy. The observed
alteration in the distribution of photosynthetically active radiation could
"Potential Effects of UV-B on the Chemical Environment of Marine
Organisms: A Review," B. Palenik (Dept. Molecular Genetics, Univ. Chicago,
Chicago IL 60637), N.M. Price, F.M.M. Morel, Environ. Pollut., 70(2),
Increased UV-B from ozone depletion could lead to changes in the marine
chemical environment such as production of bioactive free radicals,
photodecomposition of organic matter, and availability of trace metals; these
changes could be beneficial or deleterious to marine phytoplankton. The
bioavailability of the redox active trace metals Fe and Cu will increase,
promoting phytoplankton production in the Fe-limited high latitude ocean, and
possibly causing Cu toxicity elsewhere. Overall, effects may balance and account
for marine ecosystems' ability to sustain widely variable UV-B flux without
"DNA Damage in the Antarctic," D. Karentz (Lab. Radiobiol.,
Univ. California, San Francisco CA 94143), J.E. Cleaver, D.L. Mitchell, Nature,
350(6313), 28, Mar. 7, 1991. Evaluation of UV exposure and
photobiological responses of nine phytoplankton species indicates that Antarctic
phytoplankton have diverse capabilities for sustaining and repairing UV-induced
"Combination of UV-B and Ozone Reduces Pollen Tube Growth More Than
Either Stress Alone," W.A. Feder (Univ. Massachusetts Exper. Sta., 240
Beaver St., Waltham MA 02154), R. Shrier, Environ. Exper. Bot., 30(4),
451-454, Oct. 1990.
Varieties of Nicotiana tabacum and Petunia hybrida exhibited
reduced pollen tube growth of up to 79% after exposure to UV-B at 300 micro W
cm-2 for 30 minutes followed by O3 at 120 ppb for three hours. Effects appeared
to be additive.
"Growth and Yield of Field-Grown Soybean in Response to Enhanced
Exposure to Ultraviolet-B Radiation," T.R. Sinclair (USDA-ARS, Agronomy
Dept., Univ. Florida, Gainesville FL 32611), O. N'Diaye, R.H. Biggs, J.
Environ. Qual., 19(3), 478-481, July-Sep. 1991.
Six soybean cultivars were exposed in the field to a 32% enhancement of UV-B
irradiance. No influence of either UV-A or UV-B was detected on any growth
parameter studied, including leaf area development, internode length,
phyllochron index, flowering date, podding date, crop growth rate, and final
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