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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d91dec32

"Effects of Enhanced Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Aquatic Ecosystems," D.P. Häder (Inst. Bot. & Pharm. Biol., Staudstr. 5, D-8520 Erlangen, Ger.), R.C. Worrest, Photochem. Photobiol., 53(5), 717-725, May 1991.

This review finds evidence that both phyto- and zooplankton are under considerable UV-B stress at current UV radiation levels, and that any decrease in the ozone layer could have dramatic effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, uncertainties regarding potential effects are large; problems include extrapolating laboratory findings to the open sea, and the nearly complete absence of data on long-term effects and ecosystem responses. Information needed includes biological action spectra based on dose-response data on a wide variety of marine species, and field studies that will give spatial and temporal distribution data and will lead to better understanding and application of laboratory findings. Molecular mechanisms of damage need to be determined.

Item #d91dec33

"Effect of UV-B Radiation on Leaf Optical Properties Measured with Fibre Optics," J.F. Bornman (Dept. Plant Physiol., Univ. Lund, Box 7007, S-220 07 Lund, Swed.), T.C. Vogelmann, J. Exper. Bot., 42(237), 547-554, Apr. 1991.

Brassica campestris, Brassica carinata and Medicago sativa were exposed for two weeks to supplemental UV-B. As measured with a fiber optic microprobe, exposure altered the internal light microenvironment within leaves in different ways for the different species. Changes appeared to be caused by alterations in pigment content and leaf anatomy. The observed alteration in the distribution of photosynthetically active radiation could influence photosynthesis.

Item #d91dec34

"Potential Effects of UV-B on the Chemical Environment of Marine Organisms: A Review," B. Palenik (Dept. Molecular Genetics, Univ. Chicago, Chicago IL 60637), N.M. Price, F.M.M. Morel, Environ. Pollut., 70(2), 117-130, 1991.

Increased UV-B from ozone depletion could lead to changes in the marine chemical environment such as production of bioactive free radicals, photodecomposition of organic matter, and availability of trace metals; these changes could be beneficial or deleterious to marine phytoplankton. The bioavailability of the redox active trace metals Fe and Cu will increase, promoting phytoplankton production in the Fe-limited high latitude ocean, and possibly causing Cu toxicity elsewhere. Overall, effects may balance and account for marine ecosystems' ability to sustain widely variable UV-B flux without apparent damage.

Item #d91dec35

"DNA Damage in the Antarctic," D. Karentz (Lab. Radiobiol., Univ. California, San Francisco CA 94143), J.E. Cleaver, D.L. Mitchell, Nature, 350(6313), 28, Mar. 7, 1991. Evaluation of UV exposure and photobiological responses of nine phytoplankton species indicates that Antarctic phytoplankton have diverse capabilities for sustaining and repairing UV-induced damage.

Item #d91dec36

"Combination of UV-B and Ozone Reduces Pollen Tube Growth More Than Either Stress Alone," W.A. Feder (Univ. Massachusetts Exper. Sta., 240 Beaver St., Waltham MA 02154), R. Shrier, Environ. Exper. Bot., 30(4), 451-454, Oct. 1990.

Varieties of Nicotiana tabacum and Petunia hybrida exhibited reduced pollen tube growth of up to 79% after exposure to UV-B at 300 micro W cm-2 for 30 minutes followed by O3 at 120 ppb for three hours. Effects appeared to be additive.

Item #d91dec37

"Growth and Yield of Field-Grown Soybean in Response to Enhanced Exposure to Ultraviolet-B Radiation," T.R. Sinclair (USDA-ARS, Agronomy Dept., Univ. Florida, Gainesville FL 32611), O. N'Diaye, R.H. Biggs, J. Environ. Qual., 19(3), 478-481, July-Sep. 1991.

Six soybean cultivars were exposed in the field to a 32% enhancement of UV-B irradiance. No influence of either UV-A or UV-B was detected on any growth parameter studied, including leaf area development, internode length, phyllochron index, flowering date, podding date, crop growth rate, and final seed yield.

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