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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d91jan43

"Atmospheric OCS: Evidence for a Contribution of Anthropogenic Sources?" H.G. Bingemer (Biogeochem. Dept., Max Planck Inst., Postfach 3060, D-6500 Mainz, FRG), S. Bürgermeister et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95(D12), 20,617-20,622, Nov. 20, 1990.

Measured carbonyl sulfide in the boundary layer of the marine atmosphere on board ship in the Atlantic Ocean between 37° S and 51° N. Observed a pronounced northward increase of OCS of 26 ppt per 10° latitude. OCS correlated with CH4 and CO values obtained during the cruise by another investigator.

Item #d91jan44

"The Global Cycle of Carbon Monoxide: Trends and Mass Balance," M.A.K. Khalil (Ctr. Atmos. Studies, Oregon Grad. Ctr., 19600 NW Von Neuman Dr., Beaverton OR 97006), R.A. Rasmussen, Chemosphere, 20(1-2), 227-242, 1990.

The annual global emissions of CO are estimated to be 2,600 + or - 600 Tg, 60% of which are anthropogenic in origin. Approximately 85% of the atmospheric CO is removed by reaction with OH radicals. If the present view of the global CO cycle is correct, then it is likely that increasing levels of CO will contribute to widespread changes in atmospheric chemistry.

Item #d91jan45

"Tropospheric Chemical Composition: Overview of Experimental Methods in Measurement," G.P. Ayers (Div. Atmos. Res., Commonwealth Sci. Res. Organization, Mordialloc, Victoria, Aust.), R.W. Gillett, Rev. Geophys., 28(3), 297-314, Aug. 1990.

Gives insight into methods used by experimentalists to measure various chemical constituents of the troposphere. Includes selected illustrations of a range of measurements and the difficulties involved in determining trace gas species to as low as one part in 1012 in gaseous, aqueous and aerosol phases.

Item #d91jan46

"The Variability of Biogenic Sulfur Flux from a Temperate Salt Marsh on Short Time and Space Scales," M.C. Morrison, M.E. Hines (Earth, Oceans, Space Inst., Univ. New Hampshire, Durham NH O3824), Atmos. Environ., 24A(7), 1771-1779, 1990. Reports on field observations of flux variability to improve estimates of the annual emissions of biogenic sulfur.

Item #d91jan47

"Gaseous Emissions from Canadian Boreal Forest Fires," W.R. Cofer III (Atmos. Sci., NASA Langley, Hampton VA 23665), J.S. Levine et al., ibid., 1653-1659. Results argue strongly for the need to characterize biomass burning emissions from the major global vegetation/ecosystems to improve the quality of any assessments of biomass burning impacts on atmospheric chemistry and climate.

Item #d91jan48

"Nitrous Oxide Dissolved in Soil Solution: An Insignificant Pathway of Nitrogen Loss from a Southeastern Hardwood Forest," E.A. Davidson (NASA Ames, Moffitt Field, Calif.), W.T. Swank, Water Resour. Res., 26(7), 1687-1690, July 1990. Extrapolation from measurements made at a southern Appalachian site for losses from soil solution over the global area occupied by hardwood forest indicates that this source of N2O is insignificant for global atmospheric budgets.

Item #d91jan49

"Infrared Spectroscopic Detection of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) in the Lower Stratosphere and Upper Troposphere," C.P. Rinsland (NASA-LRC, MS-401A, Hampton VA 23665), L.R. Brown, C.B. Farmer, J. Geophys. Res., 95(D5), 5577-5585, Apr. 20, 1990.

Identifies the unresolved SF6 nu3 band Q branch at 947.9 cm-1 in high resolution solar occultation spectra of the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. Data, recorded by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument during its first flight on board the shuttle, are compared with previously reported values and discussed in terms of the atmospheric lifetime of SF6, the long-term trend of atmospheric SF6, and the possible role of SF6 as an atmospheric greenhouse gas.

Item #d91jan50

"Emissions of Some Trace Gases from Biomass Fires," D.A. Hegg (Dept. Atmos. Sci., AK-40, Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), L.F. Radke et al., ibid., 5669-5675.

Airborne measurements from seven forest fires in North America are used to determine the average emission factors of 13 trace gases, which are then used to estimate the contributions of biomass burning to their world-wide emissions. The significance of such emissions on global and local scales are discussed.

Item #d91jan51

"The Influence of Termites on Atmospheric Trace Gases: CH4, CO2, CHCl3, N2O, CO, H2 and Light Hydrocarbons," M.A.K. Khalil (Inst. Atmos. Sci., Oregon Grad. Ctr., 19600 N.W. Von Neumann Dr., Beaverton OR 97006), R.A. Rasmussen et al., ibid., 3619-3634.

Using field studies on mounds of Australian termites, estimates that on a global scale termites emit about 12 x 1012 g yr-1 of CH4 (mostly in summer) and about 4 x 1015 g yr-1 of CO2. A view of the role of termites in the global carbon cycle is constructed; although uncertainties are large, termites are probably not an important global source of methane.

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