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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1991
STRATOSPHERIC OZONE AND MODELING
"On the Relevance of OClO Photodissociation to the Destruction of
Stratospheric Ozone," W.G. Lawrence (Dept. Chem., Univ. California, Irvine
CA 92717), D.C. Clemitshaw, V.A. Apkarian, J. Geophys. Res., 95(B11),
18,591-18,595, Oct. 20, 1990. Determination of the quantum yield of the gas
phase photodissociation of chlorine dioxide indicates it is too small to
significantly perturb the stratospheric ozone budget.
"Interpretation of Aircraft Measurements of NO, ClO, and O3 in the
Lower Stratosphere," S.R. Kawa (Aeronomy Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder
CO 80303), D.W. Fahey et al., ibid., 18,597-18,609.
NO and ClO increased after sunrise, consistent with photolysis of nighttime
reservoirs. The derived values for NO2, ClONO2, and N2O5 near midday are in good
agreement with most previous measurements and model estimates. An estimate for
the mixing ratio of HNO3 and the HNO3/NOy fraction are in good agreement with
values from the ATMOS experiment.
"Influence of Equatorial QBO and SST on Polar Total Ozone, and the
1990 Antarctic Ozone Hole," J.K. Angell (ARL, ERL, NOAA, 1325 East-West
Hwy., Silver Spring MD 20910), Geophys. Res. Lett., 17(10),
1569-1572, Sep. 1990.
Found total-ozone variations at Resolute, Canada, (75° N) to be more
closely related to the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation, while at the South
Pole they were almost equally related to QBO and sea surface temperature. Based
on previously observed relations, an even deeper Antarctic ozone hole in
1990 than in 1989, and an end to the biennial variation in depth of the hole of
the last six years are expected.
"Ozone Profile Measurements within, at the Edge of, and outside the
Antarctic Polar Vortex in the Spring of 1988," T. Deshler (Dept. Phys.,
Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), D.J. Hofmann, J.V. Hereford, J. Geophys.
Res., 95(D7), 10,023-10,035, June 20, 1990.
Although the 1988 polar vortex did not remain over McMurdo as in 1986 or
1987, it persisted long enough to establish that ozone depletion was less
extensive and ended earlier than in those years. There were nevertheless
similarities: depletion was caused by a sink between 12 and 20 km, primary
depletion was episodic, and ozone layering was observed at the vortex edge.
"A Diagnostic for Denitrification in the Winter Polar Stratospheres,"
D.W. Fahey (NOAA/ARL, 325 Broadway R/E/AL6, Boulder CO 80303), S. Solomon et
al., Nature, 345(6277), 698-702, June 21, 1990.
Investigates the nature of correlation between measurements of NOy and N2O,
which can indicate the potential for catalytic ozone destruction, using data
from the Southern and Northern Hemispheres. Uses two-dimensional photochemical
model simulations to establish a theoretical framework for the correlations
observed. The approach can be extended to other pairs of molecules when
comparing aircraft data to model simulations.
"Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Ozone Depletion: Relevance of
Extended in situ Observations," G.P. Gobbi (Inst. Fisica Atmos.,
CNR - CP 27, 00044 Frascati (Roma), Italy), A. Adriani, M. Viterbini, Il
Nuovo Cimento, 13(3), 599-616, May-June 1990. Describes
balloon-borne observation of cloud particles (2-200 micron radius) with on-line
TV images, planned for Aug.-Oct. 1990.
"Photodissociation of Cl2O2 in the Spring Antarctic Lower
Stratosphere," I.J. Eberstein (NASA/GSFC, Code 616, Greenbelt MD 20771),
Geophys. Res. Lett., 17(6), 721-724, May 1990. Concludes that
chlorine peroxide is likely to photodissociate in the visible wavelengths to
give ClO radicals as primary products.
"Two-Dimensional Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry Model: Numerical
Experiments with a New Advection Algorithm," R.-L. Shia (Div. Geol. Sci.,
Calif. Inst. Technol., Pasadena CA 91125), Y.L. Ha et al., J. Geophys. Res.,
95(D6), 7467-7483, May 20, 1990. The new algorithm is superior to a
typical fourth-order finite difference scheme and faithfully preserves
concentration profiles with essentially no numerical diffusion.
"The Modelling Problems Associated with Spatial Averaging," J.A.
Pyle (Dept. Phys. Chem., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge, U.K.), A.M.
Zavody, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 116(493), 753-766, Apr.
1990. Satellite data show that for reactions controlling the ozone budget, the
resulting error from spatial averaging is not generally large. That errors could
be more significant for species with strong vertical gradients or with
variability on small scales could explain some modeling problems.
"Atmospheric General Circulation Simulations with the BMRC Global
Spectral Model: The Impact of Revised Physical Parameterizations," T.L.
Hart (Bureau Meteor. Res. Ctr., GPO Box 1289K, Melbourne, Vic. 3001, Australia),
J. Clim., 3(4), 436-459, Apr. 1990. The simulation of the polar
night region of the stratosphere in January using a revised radiation code was
much more realistic than earlier results.
"Variations in Ozone Content and Temperature of the Middle Atmosphere
as a Result of Anthropogenic Perturbations," I.G. Deminov (Novosibirsk
Univ., Novosibirsk, USSR), E.I. Ginzburg, Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean Phys.,
25(6), 1989. See pp. 417-423, English edition, dated Jan. 1990.
A one-dimensional, nonsteady-state radiation and chemical model is used to
evaluate changes between 0 and 55 km that could result from anthropogenic
alteration of the concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, CFCl3, CF2Cl2 and CCl4.
The combined action of these trace gases is not additive, but results in
considerably smaller variations in O3 content and temperature because of the
interaction between radiative and photochemical processes. Presents projected
variations through 2080.
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