February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1991
RADIATION BUDGET OF THE EARTH
"Ice Particles and the Greenhouse," F. Hoyle (Sch. Mathematics,
Univ. Wales, Cardiff CF2 4AG, UK), N.C. Wickramasinghe, Nature, 350(6318),
467, Apr. 11, 1991. Even slight variations in the Earth's albedo, triggered by
terrestrial or extraterrestrial influences on condensation nuclei, could
overwhelm the effect of doubled CO2.
"Cloud Albedo Control by Cloud-Top Entrainment," H.P. Hanson
(CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), Tellus, 43A(1),
37-48, Jan. 1991. Aircraft data indicate that variations in the water vapor
content of the air above the marine inversion can be responsible for the albedo
change; implications of this unexpected result for climate modeling are
"On the Net Radiative Effectiveness of Clouds," D.L. Hartmann
(Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), D. Doelling,
J. Geophys. Res., 95(D1), 869-891, Jan. 20, 1991. Compares
results of two methods of calculating the relative magnitudes of the effects of
clouds on outgoing longwave radiation and on reflected solar radiation.
"Cloud Types and the Tropical Earth Radiation Budget," H.L.
Dhuria, H.L. Kyle (Code 936, NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), J. Clim.,
3(12), 1409-1434, Dec. 1990. A consistent result of comparing Nimbus-7
cloud and earth radiation budget data is that net radiation is strongly
influenced by the average cloud type and amount present, but most net radiation
values could be produced by several combinations of cloud types and amount.
"Relationship between Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing at the Surface
and the Top of the Atmosphere," Harshvardhan (Dept. Earth Sci., Purdue
Univ., W. Lafayette IN 47907), D.A. Randall, D.A. Dazlich, ibid.,
1435-1443. In regions where a particular cloud regime exists preferentially,
general circulation models show a relationship between the mean longwave cloud
radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface.
"Radiation Balance at the Sea Surface in the Atlantic Ocean Region
between 40° S and 40° N," H.D. Behr (Deutscher Wetterdienst,
Meteor. Observ., Frähmredder 95, D-2000 Hamburg 65, Ger.), J. Geophys.
Res., 95(D12), 20,633-20,640, Nov. 20, 1990. A four-week continuous
record of solar and terrestrial downward and upward radiation flux densities is
shown to be in good agreement with the parameterization reported by Coakley
"The International Symposium on Radiation (Lille, August 18-24,
1988)," Izvestiya, Atmos. Ocean. Phys., 25(7), 1989. See
pp. 576-581, English edition, dated Oct. 1990. Summarizes the quadrennial
conference, which covered remote sounding of the Earth, radiation transport
theory, modeling radiative processes, and the role of the Earth's radiation and
cloud balance in climate change.
"Seasonal Variation of Cloud Radiative Forcing Derived from the Earth
Radiation Budget Experiment," E.F. Harrison (Atmos. Sci., NASA-Langley,
Hampton VA 23665), P. Minnis et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95(D11),
18,687-18,703, Oct. 20, 1990. Comparing ERBE results with general circulation
models shows that global net cloud forcing can be determined reasonably well
from some current models. Modeled regional and zonal values of radiative cloud
forcing, however, need considerable improvement.
"The 1989 IAMAP Symposium on the Earth's Radiation Budget," G.
Ohring (Nat. Environ. Satellite, Data & Info. Serv., NOAA, Washington DC
20233), Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71(10), 1455-1457, Oct. 1990.
Held Aug. 3-5, 1989, Reading, England; included application of measurements and
calculations of radiative fluxes in the earth-atmosphere system to weather and
"Comparison of Cloud Forcing Derived from the Earth Radiation Budget
Experiment with That Simulated by the NCAR Community Climate Model [CCM],"
J.T. Kiehl (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), V. Ramanathan, J. Geophys.
Res., 95(D8), 11,679-11,698, July 20, 1990.
Compares top-of-atmosphere radiative quantities from ERBE with those
quantities from the latest CCM version. An overestimate of modeled clear-sky,
longwave fluxes is ascribed to the prevalent dryness of the model. Comparison of
shortwave cloud radiative forcing indicates deficiencies where marine stratus
clouds are absent.
"Discrete Angle Radiative Transfer," ibid.
"1. Scaling and Similarity, Universality and Diffusion," S.
Lovejoy (Phys. Dept., McGill Univ., Montréal, Qué. H3A 2T8, Can.),
A. Davis et al., 11,699-11,715. Derives and discusses powerful, discrete angle
similarity relations for simplifying the difficult angular part of radiative
"2. Renormalization Approach for Homogeneous and Fractal Clouds,"
P. Gabriel (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins CO 80523), S.
Lovejoy et al., 11,717-11,728. Discusses the analytical application of the
theory of Part 1 to homogeneous clouds in one, two and three dimensions, and to
a simple deterministic fractal cloud.
"3. Numerical Results and Meteorological Applications," A. Davis (Établissement
d'Études Météor., Ctr. Recherches en Météor.
Dyn., Météor. Nationale, Paris, France), P. Gabriel et al.,
11,729-11,742. Numerically analyzes the same cloud cases explored analytically
in Part 2. Several meteorological consequences, especially concerning the "albedo
paradox" and global climate models, are discussed, and future directions of
investigation are outlined. Much more emphasis should be placed on modeling
spatial inhomogeneity and investigating its radiative signature, even if this
implies crude treatment of the angular aspect of the radiative transfer problem.
"Comparison of Energy Source Estimates Derived from Atmospheric
Circulation Data with Satellite Measurements of Net Radiation," C.
Fortelius, E. Holopainen (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Helsinki, Hallituskatu 11-13,
SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland), J. Clim., 3(6), 646-660, June 1990.
The distribution of net sources of atmospheric dry and latent energy are
evaluated by the residual technique using reanalyzed ECMWF FGGE level IIIb data.
Their sum is compared to simultaneous Nimbus-7 ERB estimates of the net
radiation at the top of the atmosphere.
"The Influence of Clouds on Radiation: A Climate Modeling
Perspective," Y. Fouquart (Lab. d'Optique Atmos., Bâtiment P. 5,
Univ. Sci. Tech. de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France), J.C. Buriez
et al., Rev. Geophys., 28(2), 145-166, May 1990.
Cloud representations in climate models will soon include condensed water as
an additional prognostic value. Examines how simple parameterizations based on
the liquid water content can realistically simulate the radiation field.
"Adjusted NOAA Outgoing Long-Wave and Net Solar Irradiances,"
B.C. Weare (Dept. Land Resour., Univ. California, Davis CA 95616), A. Soong,
Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 116(491A), 205-219, Jan. 1990.
Compares data from the NOAA series satellites with those from Earth Radiation
Budget radiometers aboard Nimbus 7 to derive correction factors.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations