February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1991
Comment on an article on satellite temperature monitoring by Spencer and
Christy. Science, 251(4991), 316, Jan. 18, 1991.
"A 400 Years Isotope Record of the Antarctic Peninsula Climate,"
A.J. Aristarain (CRICYT, Casilla de Géochimie Osotopique, DSM/DPhG, CEN
Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex, France), J. Jouzel, C. Lorius, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 17(12), 2369-2372, Dec. 1990. A proxy temperature record
deduced from deuterium in an ice core indicates a temperature decline of about
2° C from 1850 to the present, probably a result of regional flow
"A Comparison of `Global' Temperature Estimates from Satellite and
Instrumental Data, 1979-88," H.F. Diaz (ERL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO
80303), ibid., 2373-2376.
Comparison of surface temperature changes over land and ocean areas with
tropospheric air temperature derived from satellites (by Spencer and Christy)
shows discrepancy in the warm half of the set of years, with agreement in the
cold half. Concludes that interannual surface temperature variations over the
oceans compare poorly with such variations in the troposphere above, especially
when the oceans are relatively warm. The satellite measurements agree very well
with an index of tropospheric temperature derived from radiosonde stations.
"Urban Heat Islands in China," W.-C. Wang (Atmos. Sci. Res.
Ctr., SUNY, 100 Fuller Rd., Albany NY 12205), Z. Zeng, T.R. Karl, ibid.,
2377-2380. A 30-year comparison of rural and urban station pairs shows a general
increase in heat island intensity of about 0.1° C, although the trend has
not been constant.
"Trends in Surface Ozone at Hohenpeissenberg and Arkona," P.S.
Low (Clim. Res. Unit, Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), T.D. Davies et al.,
J. Geophys. Res., 95(D13), 22,441-22,453, Dec. 20, 1990.
Analysis of an 18-year data set from Hohenpeissenberg (West Germany) and a
33-year set from Arkona (East Germany) indicate a positive long-term trend in
surface ozone of about 1.0% per year at both locations.
"Effects of Greenhouse Warming on Maximum Summer Temperatures,"
R.C. Balling Jr. (Lab. Climatol., Arizona State Univ., Tempe AZ 85287), S.B.
Idso, Agric. For. Meteor., 53 (1-2), 143-147, Nov. 1990.
Analysis of temperature records from a number of stations indicates there is no
sound observational basis for predicting an increase in the frequency of
occurrence of extreme high summer temperatures in response to greenhouse
"Long-Term Changes in Amplitudes of Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations at
Ocean Station P and Alert, Canada," Y.-H. Chan (Western Ecol. Serv. Ltd.,
2-2563 Penrhyn St., Victoria, B.C. V8N 1G2, Can.), C.S. Wong, Tellus,
42B(4), 330-341, 1990.
Trend analysis suggests the growth rate of CO2 seasonal amplitude at Station
P (145° W, 50° N) was 1.4% per year from 1971 to 1979, while at
Alert there was no trend from 1977 to 1985. The differences are attributed
mainly to the geographical differences in CO2 sources and sinks, one of which
may be the biosphere. Factors are discussed, such as winter-season
photosynthesis, which is probably increasing and may be altering the CO2
"Effects of Autocorrelation and Temporal Sampling Schemes on
Estimates of Trend and Spatial Correlation," G.C. Tiao (Grad. Sch.
Business, Univ. Chicago, 1101 E. 58th St., Chicago IL 60637), G.C. Reinsel et
al., J. Geophys. Res., 95(D12), 20,507-20,517, Nov. 20, 1990.
Based on methodological considerations as well as empirical analysis of total
and profile ozone data, concludes that the precision of trend estimates depends
critically on the autocorrelation of monthly samples.
"Antarctic Temperatures over the Present Century--A Study of the
Early Expedition Record," P.D. Jones (Clim. Res. Unit, Univ. E. Anglia,
Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), J. Clim., 3(11), 1193-1203, Nov. 1990.
Analysis of air temperature records from 26 expeditions that have
overwintered between 1898 and 1958 as well as more recent data suggests that
Antarctic air temperatures now appear to be warmer, by at least 1° C, than
those of the first decade of this century. This result is broadly consistent
with changes reported for both land and marine regions over the rest of the
Southern Hemisphere, but contrasts with temperature change observed over the
"Detection of Climatic Change in the Western North American Arctic
Using a Synoptic Climatological Approach," L.S. Kalkstein (Off. Policy
Anal., PM-221, U.S. Environ. Protect. Agency, Washington DC 20460), P.C. Dunne,
R.S. Vose, ibid., 3(10), 1153-1167, Oct. 1990.
Since attempts to detect global warming in long-term temperature records
have led to conflicting results, the authors propose an approach based on
synoptic climatological analysis of air masses. An automated synoptic index
constructed for North American Arctic locations indicates that the frequencies
of the majority of the coldest air masses have decreased over the past 40 years,
while those of the warmest have increased. Suggests a technique to determine
whether these changes are attributable to anthropogenic influences.
"Trace Gas Measurements at the Monitoring Station Cape Point, South
Africa, between 1978 and 1988," H.E. Scheel (Fraunhofer Inst. Atmos.
Environ. Res., D-8100 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, FRG), E.-G. Brunke, W. Seiler,
J. Atmos. Chem., 11(3), 197-210, Oct. 1990.
Presents monthly means, long-term trends and seasonal variations of
measurements taken since 1978 of CO, CFCl3, CCl4, O3, N2O and CH4. CO and CH4
show very similar seasonal variations, indicating the strong connection between
these gases. No significant trends are seen in CO and O3. Positive trends are
found in CFCl3, N2O, CH4 and CCl4.
"Recent Changes of the Tropical Water and Energy Budget of
Midlatitude Circulations," J. Flohn (Univ. Bonn, Meteor. Inst., Auf dem Hügel
20, W-5300 Bonn, FRG), A. Kapala et al., Clim. Dynamics, 4(4),
237-252, Oct. 1990.
Atmospheric observations are analyzed for signs of possible greenhouse
warming other than in the surface temperature record. This and related studies
indicate trends in features such as tropical oceanic evaporation and various
measures of mid-latitude circulation, which are consistent with changes
predicted for CO2-induced warming in a few recent climate models with advanced
parameterization of tropical convection.
"Long-Term Trends in the Concentrations of SF6, CHClF2, and COF2 in
the Lower Stratosphere from Analysis of High-Resolution Infrared Solar
Occultation Spectra," C.P. Rinsland (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley,
Hampton VA 23665), A. Goldman et al., J. Geophys. Res., 95(D10),
16,447-16,490, Sep. 20, 1990.
The results for SF6 and CHCLF2, two man-made gases, were derived from 1981
and 1988 measurements by balloon-borne interferometer after comparison with the
Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment/Spacelab 3. Mean increase
rates of 7.4% and 9.4% per year, respectively, were estimated. The estimate for
COF2 is 10.3% per year.
"Uncertainties in Total Ozone Amounts Inferred from Zenith Sky
Observations: Implications for Ozone Trend Analyses," K. Stamnes (Geophys.
Inst., Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks AK 99775), S. Pegau, J. Frederick, ibid.,
Using a radiative transfer algorithm and a model atmosphere, simulated the
effects of cloud optical depth, cloud altitude, vertical distribution of ozone,
temperature profile and surface albedo on the total amount of ozone inferred by
the Dobson procedure. One conclusion is that appreciable error could result in
deduced ozone trend should tropospheric ozone double but not be taken into
account in the total ozone data processing.
"Interpretation of an 8-Year Record of Nimbus 7 Wide-Field-of-View
Infrared Measurements," R.D. Cess (Inst. Terr. Plan. Atmos., SUNY, Stony
Brook NY 11794), ibid., 16,653-16,657.
Nimbus 7 satellite data show an interesting downward trend with time in the
global-mean infrared emission by the surface-atmosphere system. This study
demonstrates that any greenhouse gas radiative trend signal is below the level
of detectability of the instrument. However, the temporal variability of the
Nimbus 7 measurements is strongly correlated with observed variability of
global-mean surface air temperature; the measurements provide an independent
means of appraising global climate variability.
"Inhomogeneities in the Long-Term United States' Sunshine Record,"
R.C. Cerveny (Lab. Climatol., Arizona State Univ., Tempe AZ 85287), R.C. Balling
Jr., J. Clim., 3(9), 1045-1048. A re-examination of the
controversy relating to instrument changes in the early 1950s shows that
climatic change is not the dominant forcing mechanism for the significant
changes in means and variances observed at many of the stations.
"Cloud Condensation Nuclei over the Southern Ocean," J.L. Gras
(Div. Atmos. Res., Dept. CSIRO, PMB 1, Mordialloc 3195, Australia), Geophys.
Res. Lett., 17(10), 1565-1567, Sep. 1990. Although CCN
concentrations observed recently at Cape Grim (Tasmania) are higher than those
reported two decades ago for clean oceanic regions, the data do not permit
confident conclusions regarding cause.
"Assessment of Urbanization Effects in Time Series of Surface Air
Temperature over Land," P.D. Jones (Clim. Res. Unit, Univ. E. Anglia,
Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), P. Ya. Groisman et al., Nature, 347(6289),
169-172, Sep. 13, 1990.
Examined an extensive set of rural station data for European parts of the
Soviet Union, eastern Australia and eastern China. Combined with similar
analyses for the contiguous United States, they show that the urbanization
influence in two of the most widely used hemispheric data sets is at most an
order of magnitude less than the 0.5° C warming observed on a century time
"Recent Secular Variations in the Extent of Northern Hemisphere Snow
Cover," D.A. Robinson (Dept. Geog., Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick NJ 08903),
K.F. Dewey, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17(10), 1557-1560, Sep. 1990.
Analysis of NOAA weekly snow charts, produced from visible satellite
imagery, shows there was less extensive cover in the last nine years than in the
1972-80 interval, with 3.7% to 8.4% lower hemispheric seasonal means. However,
it is premature to ascribe this result to an anthropogenic cause.
"Power Spectrum Analysis of the Time Series of Annual Mean Surface
Air Temperatures," R.P. Kane (Inst. Pesquisas Espaciais--INPE, C.P. 515,
12201 Sao José dos Campos, SP, Brasil), Clim. Change, 17(1),
121-130, Aug. 1990.
Maximum entropy spectral analysis of annual mean surface temperature series
for land masses and sea in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres indicates
long-term linear warming trends of 0.12-0.56° C per century. Observed
values in the 1980s are above the expected value, probably indicating greenhouse
effects due to human activity.
"Discriminating between Models: An Application to Relative Sea Level
at Brest," A.R. Solow (Woods Hole Oceanog. Inst., Woods Hole, MA 02543),
J. Clim., 3(7), 792-796, July 1990. Application of a simple
method for discriminating between competing models of trend in a climate record
show that it is impossible to distinguish between a smooth acceleration of sea
level at Brest in the period 1807-1970 and one that occurred relatively
"The Ozone Trend in the Layer of 2 to 3 km a.s.l. since 1978 and the
Typical Time Variations of the Ozone Profile between Ground and 3 km a.s.l.,"
R. Reiter (Fraunhofer Inst. Atmos. Environ. Res., Fritz-Müller Str. 54,
D-8100 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, FRG), Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 42(1),
91-104, 1990. Measurements in central Europe from 1981 to 1988 show definitely
there was no trend of ozone in this layer of the atmosphere, although a 10 ppb
increase occurred from 1978 to 1981.
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Index of Abbreviations