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Global Climate Change Digest

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Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d91may24

"Energy Use in the Developing World--A Crisis of Rising Expectations," P. Rogers (Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), Environ. Sci. Technol., 25(4), 580-583, April 1991.

In many developing countries, energy use is growing at twice the global rate and may be four times that of 1980 by 2000. Yet it is difficult for people to save much energy there when they use so little to begin with. To avoid increasing CO2 production would require foregoing almost all of the currently available options for meeting the energy requirements of the Third World at a reasonable cost. The developed world cut energy consumption greatly from 1973 to 1985; it should do so again.

"Energy Efficiency and Developing Countries," M.D. Levine (Energy Analysis, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley CA 94720), S.P. Meyers, T. Wilbanks, pp. 585-589. Industrialized countries will have to lead by example in adopting energy efficiency measures, especially because they have more resources to invest in innovation and risks. They must provide developing countries with access to new technologies and resources. Developing countries must give high priority to energy efficiency and develop improved institutional mechanisms and incentives.

Item #d91may25

"Measuring Economic Costs of CO2 Emission Limits," T. Barker (Dept. Appl. Econ., Univ. Cambridge, Sidgwick Ave., Cambridge CB3 9DE, UK), Energy, 16(3), 611-614, Mar. 1991. A critical comment on the measure of costs of CO2 emission limits used by A. Manne and R. Richels in a recent publication. For example, their economic costs are very lax compared to those suggested by the IPCC.

Item #d91may26

"A Comparison of CO2 Emissions from Fossil and Solar Power Plants in the United States," F. Kreith (Nat. Conf. State Legislators, 1560 Broadway, S. 700, Denver CO 80202), P. Norton, D. Brown, ibid., 15(12), 1181-1198, Dec. 1990. It appears that energy conservation measures and shifting from fossil to renewable energy sources have significant long-term potential to reduce CO2 production from energy generation, when the CO2 produced from construction and decommissioning is considered in addition to that produced during operation and maintenance.

Item #d91may27

Special Issue: "Engineering-Economic Modeling: Energy Systems," Energy, 15(3-4 and 7-8), Mar.-Apr. and July-Aug. 1990. Guest Editors are J.P. Weyant and T.A. Kuczmowski. Part I contains these sections: "Modeling for Policy Development," "Demand Forecasting Methodologies," and "Modeling Energy-Economy Interactions." Part II contains "Supply Optimization Methodologies," "From Models to Decisions," and "Trends in Modeling."

Item #d91may28

"Thermoeconomics and CO2 Emissions," H.-M. Groscurth (Phys. Inst., Univ. Würzburg, D-8700 Würzburg, Ger.), R. Kümmel, Energy, 15(2), 73-80, Feb. 1990.

Added a third objective function, monitoring CO2 production, to an optimization model for Germany originally designed to optimize primary energy use and costs of the energy system. Application of energy-saving technologies and CO2 removal techniques may reduce CO2 emissions by over 70%. Total costs of the energy system would double and energy use would decline by 25%.

Item #d91may29

"Managing Atmospheric CO2: Policy Implications," L.D.D. Harvey (Dept. Geog., Univ. Toronto, 100 St. George St., Toronto M5S 1A1, Can.), ibid., 91-104.

A possible rate of decrease of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions of 1-2% yr-1 is consistent with reasonable assumptions concerning population growth, feasible future per capita primary demand in industrialized and developing countries, and attainable rates of installation of nonfossil fuel energy supply. Stabilizing atmospheric CO2 at a concentration of 400-500 ppmv is a credible option requiring improved energy efficiency and redirection of energy policy.

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