February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 5, MAY 1991
"Energy Use in the Developing World--A Crisis of Rising
Expectations," P. Rogers (Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), Environ.
Sci. Technol., 25(4), 580-583, April 1991.
In many developing countries, energy use is growing at twice the global rate
and may be four times that of 1980 by 2000. Yet it is difficult for people to
save much energy there when they use so little to begin with. To avoid
increasing CO2 production would require foregoing almost all of the currently
available options for meeting the energy requirements of the Third World at a
reasonable cost. The developed world cut energy consumption greatly from 1973 to
1985; it should do so again.
"Energy Efficiency and Developing Countries," M.D. Levine (Energy
Analysis, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley CA 94720), S.P. Meyers, T. Wilbanks,
pp. 585-589. Industrialized countries will have to lead by example in adopting
energy efficiency measures, especially because they have more resources to
invest in innovation and risks. They must provide developing countries with
access to new technologies and resources. Developing countries must give high
priority to energy efficiency and develop improved institutional mechanisms and
"Measuring Economic Costs of CO2 Emission Limits," T. Barker
(Dept. Appl. Econ., Univ. Cambridge, Sidgwick Ave., Cambridge CB3 9DE, UK), Energy,
16(3), 611-614, Mar. 1991. A critical comment on the measure of costs of
CO2 emission limits used by A. Manne and R. Richels in a recent publication. For
example, their economic costs are very lax compared to those suggested by the
"A Comparison of CO2 Emissions from Fossil and Solar Power Plants in
the United States," F. Kreith (Nat. Conf. State Legislators, 1560 Broadway,
S. 700, Denver CO 80202), P. Norton, D. Brown, ibid., 15(12),
1181-1198, Dec. 1990. It appears that energy conservation measures and shifting
from fossil to renewable energy sources have significant long-term potential to
reduce CO2 production from energy generation, when the CO2 produced from
construction and decommissioning is considered in addition to that produced
during operation and maintenance.
Special Issue: "Engineering-Economic Modeling: Energy
Systems," Energy, 15(3-4 and 7-8), Mar.-Apr. and July-Aug.
1990. Guest Editors are J.P. Weyant and T.A. Kuczmowski. Part I contains these
sections: "Modeling for Policy Development," "Demand Forecasting
Methodologies," and "Modeling Energy-Economy Interactions." Part
II contains "Supply Optimization Methodologies," "From Models to
Decisions," and "Trends in Modeling."
"Thermoeconomics and CO2 Emissions," H.-M. Groscurth (Phys.
Inst., Univ. Würzburg, D-8700 Würzburg, Ger.), R. Kümmel, Energy,
15(2), 73-80, Feb. 1990.
Added a third objective function, monitoring CO2 production, to an
optimization model for Germany originally designed to optimize primary energy
use and costs of the energy system. Application of energy-saving technologies
and CO2 removal techniques may reduce CO2 emissions by over 70%. Total costs of
the energy system would double and energy use would decline by 25%.
"Managing Atmospheric CO2: Policy Implications," L.D.D. Harvey
(Dept. Geog., Univ. Toronto, 100 St. George St., Toronto M5S 1A1, Can.), ibid.,
A possible rate of decrease of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions of 1-2% yr-1 is
consistent with reasonable assumptions concerning population growth, feasible
future per capita primary demand in industrialized and developing countries, and
attainable rates of installation of nonfossil fuel energy supply. Stabilizing
atmospheric CO2 at a concentration of 400-500 ppmv is a credible option
requiring improved energy efficiency and redirection of energy policy.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations