February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 5, MAY 1991
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming, 127 pp., Apr. 1991.
Produced by the Comm. on Sci., Eng. & Public Policy, National Academies of
Sci. and Eng. and Inst. of Medicine. Available from Nat. Acad. Press, 2101
Constitution Ave. NW, Washington DC 20418 (800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313); $14.95
+ $3 postage in the U.S.
(See News, this Global Climate Change Digest issue--May 1991.)
Concerned with the possibility of unsuspected surprises in the climate that may
result from the rise of greenhouse gases, the panel recommends a mix of actions
expected to reduce U.S. emissions 10-40% below the 1990 level, mostly using
technology now available. In addition to aggressively eliminating CFCs,
improving energy efficiency and developing new generation nuclear reactors, it
calls for study and eventual introduction of "full social cost pricing"
of energy. Geoengineering approaches such as ocean fertilization, alteration of
cloud abundance and use of space mirrors should be considered and their
environmental impact carefully evaluated. Adaptation approaches include
increasing the efficiency of water use and steps to slow losses in biodiversity.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Energy Dimension, 199 pp., Apr.
1991. Produced by the secretariats of the Intl. Energy Assoc. and the Org. for
Econ. Coop. & Devel. (OECD). Available from OECD Pubs., 2001 L St. NW,
S-700, Washington DC 20036 (202-785-6323), or OECD, 2 rue André-Pascal,
75775 Paris Cedex 16, France; $40.
Produced under an "expedited" process which omits member country
review, this report is a revision of the OECD contribution to the IPCC and is
subject to further development. It examines the contribution and growth in
greenhouse gases from energy related sources to the year 2005, technologies for
controlling them, and policy options for limiting emissions. According to an
article in Intl. Environ. Rptr. (pp. 190-191, Apr. 10), unique features
of the analysis are its world outlook based on IEA's previous experience in
energy analysis, and the fact that it considers barriers to proposed policy
instruments for individual energy sectors.
Our Changing Planet: The FY 1991 Research Plan--U.S. Global Change
Research Program, 250 pp., Oct. 1990. Available (no charge) from Comm.
Earth/Environ. Sci., c/o U.S. Geological Survey, 104 National Ctr., Reston VA
Gives details of interagency research coordination for fiscal year 1991,
expanding on the summary published with the President's budget proposal in Jan.
The following were recently distributed by the Global Environ. Studies
Ctr., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., POB 2008, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (615-574-5348). The
center is continuing work on issues of global environmental cooperation, this
year focusing on the institutional, political, legal and socioeconomic
capabilities of various key actors to implement any carbon reduction agreements
that may result from a climate convention. Reports on Brazil, China, the
European Community, India, Indonesia, the USA and the USSR should be ready by
Managing the Global Commons: Decision Making and Conflict Resolution in
Response to Climate Change (ORNL/TM-11619), S. Raynor, W. Naegeli, P. Lund,
86 pp., July 1990. Contains plenary paper abstracts, a full introductory paper
by W. Riebsame, and reports from working groups at this Nov. 1990 workshop
(Boulder, Colo.). A major conclusion is that social scientists should move from
conceptual formation to nailing down needs for data, and then generate concrete,
quantitative findings. (See also Evaluation Review, Feb. 1991 for
workshop papers--Global Climate Change Digest, Prof. Pubs./Gen. Interest
& Policy, Apr. 1991.)
Managing Global Climate Change through International
Cooperation: Lessons from Prior Resource Management Efforts (ORNL/TM-10914),
D.L. Feldman, 70 pp., July 1990. Successful international cooperation (in such
areas as nuclear materials and technology, water pollution and ozone layer
protection) shows that effective strategies for managing climate change are
available but require institutional modification and patience. One lesson is
that effective international cooperation is the result of an incremental and
iterative learning process among scientists, politicians and others involved.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa (ORNL-6640), R.L.
Graham, G.D. Perlack et al., 135 pp., Nov. 1990. Current and future carbon
emissions from land-use change and energy consumption were analyzed based on
U.N. data and a land-use model developed for this project. Of three land use
options for reducing emissions, aggressive forest protection has the greatest
benefit; widespread adoption of agroforestry would also be effective. Several
land-use policy recommendations are made.
A Framework for Research on the Human Dimensions of Global
Environmental Change (ISSC/UNESCO Ser. No. 3), H.K. Jacobsen, M.F. Price
(for the ISSC Standing Comm. on the Human Dimensions of Global Change), 61 pp.,
1991. Available from Intl. Social Sci. Council, 1 rue Miollis, 75015 Paris,
France (tel: 33-1-45682558).
Developed by the international ISSC committee over the last few years, this
plan proposes studies that will require conceptual, theoretical and
methodological development in the social sciences, and collaboration between
social and natural scientists. Research involves seven topics: (1) social
dimensions of resource use; (2) perception and assessment of global
environmental conditions and change; (3) impacts of local, national, and
international social, economic, and political structures and institutions; (4)
land use; (5) energy production and consumption; (6) industrial growth; (7)
environmental security and sustainable development.
The Global Environmental Facility--Sharing Responsibility for the
Biosphere, D. Reed (Multilateral Development Bank Prog.), 18 pp., 1991.
Available (no charge) from World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), attn: Monica
Chacone, 1250 24th St. NW, Washington DC 20037 (202-293-4800).
WWF strongly endorses the stated objectives of the Global Environment
Facility (GEF), managed by the World Bank, UNEP and UNDP to provide grants and
concessional loans to developing countries for environmental objectives.
However, WWF believes the existing institutional framework must be significantly
improved to accomplish those objectives. In this report WWF explains its
perception of the significant opportunities presented by the GEF to encourage
broad public participation in its activities. Includes recommendations for
specific projects and institutional approaches.
Assessing Carbon Emissions Control Strategies: A Carbon Tax or a
Gasoline Tax? (ACEEE Policy Paper No. 3), W.U. Chandler (Battelle Memorial
Inst., Wash., D.C.), A.K. Nicholls, 53 pp., Feb. 1990. Available from Amer.
Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), 1001 Connecticut Ave. NW,
Washington DC 20036 (202-429-8873); $7.
Assesses the effectiveness, fairness and economic implications for the U.S.
of these two proposed measures. Estimates that a carbon tax would reduce carbon
emissions two to three times as much as a gasoline tax, or 14-20% of present
emissions, but a gasoline tax could provide greater national security and trade
deficit reduction. In either case a zero tax increase could be achieved by using
revenues to offset other taxes.
The following, from Britain, are discussed by J. Rose in Chem. &
Industry, p. 111, Feb. 18, 1991:
The Wealth of Nations and the Environment, M. Bernstam (Stanford
Univ., Stanford, Calif.), 1990. Published by Inst. Econ. Affairs, 2 North St.,
London SW1P 3LB. Argues that elaborate international controls like regulations
or taxes will only lead to economic stagnation; the environment is best served
through continuous economic growth. Based on a relationship derived from data
between energy consumption and gross national product.
Britain in 2010, 1990. Published by Policy Studies Inst., c/o BEBC
Ltd., 9 Albion Close, Parkstone, Bournemouth BH12 3LL. Focuses on three economic
strategies for the U.K., including one with tough pollution regulations and a
carbon tax on fossil fuels rising steadily to 200% by 2010. Concludes that
environmental economics will scarcely affect economic growth.
Report of the Preparatory Committee for the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development, 1990. "Charting the Course
for '92" (Environment, pp. 17-20; 39-44, Jan./Feb. 1991) contains
edited excerpts of the committee's report, which reveal the tone and the major
issues to be addressed at the June 1992 conference.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations